IDENTITY thieves want to steal your life savings, with their latest scam targeting people expecting handouts as part of the Federal Government's stimulus package.
The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) is warning of an email scam asking people for personal details, aimed at stealing cash handouts being rolled out in March and April.
The Australian Taxation Office (ATO) and Centrelink are preparing to make one-off bonus payments to taxpayers over the coming months as part of the $42bn package announced on February 3.
The latest scam, which emerged days after the Government announced the package, sends bogus emails to your inbox asking for personal information, ACCC deputy chairman Peter Kell says.
"Overall we're seeing a dramatic increase in scam activity,'' Mr Kell said.
"It is in part due to the general growth of online commerce and communication, but it also seems to be related to the current financial downturn which is creating new opportunities for scammers.''
According to the Australian government's Scamwatch website, the emails are disguised as official communication from the ATO or Centrelink.
* Lovesick: Spurned hacker strikes
* Love that can break the bankCourier Mail, 9 Mar 2009
* Watch out for money scammersHerald Sun, 28 Feb 2009
* Another bushfire scam warningNEWS.com.au, 12 Feb 2009
* Puppy love the latest web scamNEWS.com.au, 11 Feb 2009
* Millions flow in for bushfire victimsHerald Sun, 9 Feb 2009
They ask people to complete and submit an application to receive the bonus payments.
"They do seem to be hitting a wide range of families,'' Mr Kell says.
Leanne Vale, senior manager of financial crimes with the Association of Building Societies and Credit Unions (ABACUS), says identity thieves can empty your bank accounts with your personal information.
"They will take your life savings, what ever they can get from you,'' Ms Vale says.
"They'll use whatever means they can to get what they want.''
Ms Vale said the scammers rolled out bogus emails in the wake of topical and emotive events such as the Victorian bushfires.
Queensland police received reports of people trying to sell raffle tickets and asking for donations on the Gold and Sunshine coasts.
"Within days of the (stimulus) package being announced, scammers had a phising email designed to get your personal information,'' she says.
"Unfortunately I suspect many people responded to it.''
Mr Kell says the main barrier to compiling information on identity and electronic theft is the embarrassment of the victims.
He says complaints compiled by the ACCC for internet and identity theft scams each year amount to tens of millions, while the Australian Bureau of Statistics puts the figure at $1bn.
While online scams are as old as the internet, the global financial crisis has see people lose confidence in current investment markets, making them more likely to turn to alternate means of investment.
"We see additional offers of easy ways to make money emerging on the web,'' he says.
"An example is the significant spike in what looked like free holidays during 2008 and this summer... but they turned out to be nonexistent in some cases or attempts to sell time share in some cases.''
"Scams can be very sophisticated and clever these days and you shouldn't be embarrassed about coming forward and reporting it.''
Scamwatch.gov.au suggests you never give personal, credit card or bank details over the phone, in response to unsolicited emails, or enter it on any website without making sure the person, organisation or website you are dealing with is genuine.
Friday, May 2, 2008
July 2003 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December
Timeline of the War in Afghanistan (July 2003)
Hong Kong Basic Law
North Korea crisis
Occupation of Iraq: Timeline
Road map for peace
SCO v. IBM Linux lawsuit
US v. EU on GM food
War on Terrorism July 1, 2003
In Hong Kong, 500,000 people march to protest the rush into legislation of Hong Kong Basic Law Article 23, the anti-subversion law. Critics say the law is both too broad and too vague.
After many years of controversy, the United Kingdom House of Commons, the lower house of parliament, again votes in favour of legislation to ban fox hunting.
Italy Premier Silvio Berlusconi's government assumed the rotating EU presidency.
In Canada, Canadians celebrate Canada Day, their nation's 137th anniversary since confederation on this day in 1867. July 2, 2003
On taking up the EU presidency, Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi makes an embarrassing remark, causing an uproar of criticism from the 626-seat European Parliament and the European media, by insulting the German MEP Martin Schulz (SPD) with the words "Mr. Schulz, I know there is a producer in Italy who is making a film on the Nazi concentration camps. I will suggest you for the role of kapo. You'd be perfect."
The European Parliament approves two laws that regulate the selling of genetically modified food in the EU territory, requiring labelling of all GM products (products with more than 0.9 % genetically modified parts) and allowing member states to separate GM food and non-GM food and crops.
The International Olympic Committee announced in Prague, Czech Republic, that Vancouver, British Columbia will host the 2010 Winter Olympics.
There are reports of the discovery of a possible new type of subatomic particle, a pentaquark. 
The results of a Royal Commission on renewing the relationship between Canada and the province of Newfoundland and Labrador is released.  July 3, 2003
The World Meteorological Organisation publishes a report stating that recent extreme weather conditions around the world may mark changes in global climate caused by global warming. 
President Bush continued to consider whether or not to contribute United States troops to a peacekeeping mission in Liberia. July 4, 2003
A Shia Muslim mosque in Quetta, Pakistan is stormed by armed attackers, killing at least 32 worshippers and wounding 52. 
A tape, purporting to be of Saddam Hussein and to have been made on June 14, is broadcast on Al Jazeera, the Arabic language satellite television station. If it is Saddam, it marks the first public communication from the former Iraqi leader since his disappearance early on in the Invasion of Iraq.
Hood event July 5, 2003
At least 16 people are killed and 40 injured by two female suicide bombers in an attack at Krylya, a popular music festival, at the Tushino airfield near Moscow. The Russian authorities blame an on-going terrorism campaign by Chechen rebels; the Chechen government denies any connection to the attacks. 
2003 occupation of Iraq: 7 newly US-trained Iraqi policemen are killed and at least 13 are wounded by an explosion while they are marching from training school in Ramadi. The American forces overseeing the rebuilding of Iraq's infrastructure, who gave their blessing to the march taking place, blames loyalists to Saddam Hussein; some people on the scene blame U.S. forces. It is the first attack on Iraqis collaborating with the invading coalition forces, as opposed to on the forces themselves. 
In response to 500,000-strong protests earlier in the week, Tung Chee-hwa, leader of Hong Kong, announces that controversial provisions that are alleged capable of limiting civil liberties in Hong Kong Basic Law Article 23 will be rewritten. 
Taiwan is the last territory to be declared free of SARS by the World Health Organization, after 20 days with no new cases reported. 
Premier John Hamm of Nova Scotia, Canada, calls a provincial election for August 5.
The 2003 Tour de France begins in Paris.
Wimbledon championships: Serena Williams repeats as women's champion by beating her sister Venus, by scores of 4-6, 6-4, 6-2. July 6, 2003
- Roger Federer makes history, becoming the first Swiss male ever to win the Wimbledon final, defeating Mark Philippoussis, 7-6 (7-5), 6-2, 7-6 (7-3)
- Martina Navratilova equals her idol, Billie Jean King's record of 20 Wimbledon titles after winning the mixed doubles final with Leander Paes against Andy Ram Anastassia Rodionova, 6-3 6-3. 
- Todd Woodbridge also equals a record, winning with Jonas Björkman his 8th men's doubles title by beating Mahesh Bhupathi and Max Mirnyi, 3-6, 6-3, 7-6, 6-3. 
- Kim Clijsters and Ai Sugiyama win the women's doubles final, and so their first Wimbledon title, 6-4, 6-4, against first seeds Virginia Ruano Pascual and Paola Suarez, as they did in this year's French Open final. 
Roger Federer makes history, becoming the first Swiss male ever to win the Wimbledon final, defeating Mark Philippoussis, 7-6 (7-5), 6-2, 7-6 (7-3)
Martina Navratilova equals her idol, Billie Jean King's record of 20 Wimbledon titles after winning the mixed doubles final with Leander Paes against Andy Ram Anastassia Rodionova, 6-3 6-3. 
Todd Woodbridge also equals a record, winning with Jonas Björkman his 8th men's doubles title by beating Mahesh Bhupathi and Max Mirnyi, 3-6, 6-3, 7-6, 6-3. 
Kim Clijsters and Ai Sugiyama win the women's doubles final, and so their first Wimbledon title, 6-4, 6-4, against first seeds Virginia Ruano Pascual and Paola Suarez, as they did in this year's French Open final. 
Laden and Laleh Bijani, 29-year-old female Iranian twins conjoined at the head, begin their 2 to 4-day-long separation surgery in Singapore.  July 7, 2003
MSNBC fires conservative talk show host Michael Savage for making several anti-gay remarks towards a prank caller posing as a homosexual. Savage, who was angered by aggressive personal attacks made by "East Coast Bob," the prank caller, stated that the caller "should only get AIDS and die". Gay rights group GLAAD applauds the decision to fire Savage.
United States Central Command chief Gen. Tommy Franks retires after 36 years in uniform. Newcomer Army Gen. John Abizaid is appointed as his replacement. 
Thousands of people take part in the first bull run of the annual San Fermín festival in Pamplona, Spain. No serious injuries or gorings were reported. 
A United States district court approves a settlement between WorldCom and the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, in which WorldCom will pay $750 million to investors for its accounting scandal.
A rare political drama happens in Hong Kong. Chief Executive Tung Chee Hwa is forced to postpone the legislation of Hong Kong Basic Law Article 23, just few hours after he insists the second reading will go on schedule despite the giant protest on July 1. July 8, 2003
A worker at a Lockheed Martin aircraft parts factory in Meridian, Mississippi shoots 13 co-workers, killing five, before committing suicide. Investigators are unsure of the motive.
Ladan and Laleh Bijani die during their unsuccessful separation operation in Singapore. 
During a visit to the former slave-trading station on Goree Island, off the coast of Dakar, Senegal, U.S. President George W. Bush calls slavery "one of the greatest crimes of history", but stops short of an official apology. 
Same-sex marriage in Canada: A British Columbia court rules that same-sex couples may get married in that province, effective immediately. BC becomes the second Canadian province, and second political division in the Western Hemisphere, to legalize same-sex marriage. This decision is similar to the Ontario decision on June 10, 2003. 
A Sudan Airways Boeing 737 jetliner crashes in Port Sudan, killing 116 passengers. A toddler of two or three years is the sole survivor but dies later of his wounds. ,  July 9, 2003
The ferry MV Nasrin-1 capsizes and sinks near Chandpore in Bangladesh. The whereabouts of most of the approximately 700 passengers is unknown. 
The U.S. government announces that two more officials of the defeated Iraqi government on the U.S. list of most-wanted Iraqis were taken into custody on Tuesday. Mizban Khadr al-Hadi was a high-ranking member of Iraq's Baath Party Regional Command and Revolutionary Command Council, and Mahmud Dhiyab al-Ahmad was a former Interior Minister.
Nike announces an agreement to purchase Converse; for $305M. July 10, 2003
The Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund announces that on legal advice it has frozen its funds as it faces a demand for £15 million ($25 million) damages for alleged malicious prosecution from the Franklin Mint in the US. The Mint had won a courtcase over its right to manufacture a Diana, Princess of Wales lookalike doll. Hundreds of charities are expected face financial difficulties as a result of the freeze. Arc Charity Chief Executive James Churchill says "I hope that the Franklin Mint Corporation is aware of the damage that their action is causing to groups of vulnerable young people all over the world."
Former International Development Secretary Clare Short urges that British Prime Minister Tony Blair voluntarily leave the premiership. Blair, dining with Bill Clinton in London's Guildhall, makes no comment.
Gay rights campaigner Peter Tatchell claims the second most senior Church of England cleric, Archbishop Hope of York, is gay. The Archbishop had previously described his sexuality as a "grey area". The claim follows the row over a nomination of an openly gay canon to a bishopric in England and his withdrawal after attacks from conservative groups within the Anglican communion.
NASA reports the discovery of PSR B1620-26c (unofficially dubbed Methuselah), the oldest extrasolar planet yet discovered. The planet, which is estimated to be 12.7 billion years old, is orbiting the pulsar PSR B1620-26 in the core of the ancient globular star cluster M4, located 5,600 light-years away in the summer constellation Scorpius.  July 12, 2003
The intelligence service of the United States says that the CIA's head, George Tenet, accepted George W. Bush's speech in January, which included wrong information of Iraq's plans to buy uranium from Africa.  The office of Prime Minister Tony Blair responded that it stands by its belief that Saddam Hussein attempted to buy African uranium, claiming that it cannot share its information with the United States because it comes from "foreign intelligence sources." 
Baseball: Barry Bonds ties the 63-year-old record of Jimmie Foxx by homering against the Arizona Diamondbacks' Curt Schilling, becoming the second player in Major League Baseball to hit at least 30 home runs in 12 consecutive seasons. July 13, 2003
A national governing council meets for the first time in Baghdad, as US troops launch a new assault on anti-coalition elements. 
Yahoo! announces that it will buy Internet search listing service Overture Services for $1.63 billion in cash and stock.
The United Kingdom media, following tip-offs from the Israeli and British Intelligence Services, state that Seán Ó Muireagáin of the Real IRA had been captured in Israel. July 14, 2003
Mexico declares a state of emergency due to an outbreak of the West Nile virus (Planetark.org).
The United States Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight announces an investigation into the accounting of America's two largest mortgage firms Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae (BBC).
Pierce Brosnan is to be made an honorary OBE (BBC). July 15, 2003
Scott McClellan replaces Ari Fleischer, as White House press secretary.  July 16, 2003
Seán Ó Muireagáin, a Northern Irish journalist, arrested by Israel and held for five days without legal representation in a case of mistaken identity, is released and leaves Israel. The affair causes considerable embarrassment to the Israeli and British secret services, the former having arrested Ó Mureagáin on the advice of the latter, who claimed incorrectly that he was a Real IRA man with the same name. In the confused aftermath, the Israeli Foreign Ministry spokesman suggests that Ó Muireagáin may have been guilty, while Prime Minister Sharon's spokesman states categorically that he was innocent and the entire affair an error. He claims that Ó Muireagáin is a former convicted Provisional IRA terrorist.
A coup d'état takes place in São Tomé and Príncipe; the prime minister Maria das Neves is arrested. 
Following the 500,000-people protest on July 1, the government of Hong Kong is hit by two resignations of high-ranking officials in one day. One is the Financial Secretary Antony Leung and the other is the Security Secretary Regina Ip who was in charge of the controversial Article 23. 
Noor Fatima, a two-and-a-half-year-old Pakistani girl was successfully operated on in an Indian hospital today to plug holes in her heart, making her father term it, "the resumption of a new era of friendship betweIen India and Pakistan".
Phil Fontaine is elected Grand Chief of the Assembly of First Nations of Canada.
An 86-year-old man accidentally hits the accelerator instead of the brake at a farmer's market in Santa Monica, California, driving his car through a closed-off street and killing at least 10 people (including a 3-year-old girl and a 7-month-old boy) and injuring over 50 others. One of the dead is the daughter-in-law of actor Dennis Weaver.
An Australian research team led by Graham Giles of The Cancer Council published a medical study which concluded that frequent masturbation by males may help prevent the development of prostate cancer. July 17, 2003
Same-sex marriage in Canada: The federal government releases its draft bill to extend marriage rights to same-sex couples while protecting the rights of clergy not to perform marriages that run counter to their religious beliefs. The government will seek a reference from the Supreme Court of Canada to ensure the bill is constitutional. 
India declines a United States request to send an occupation force to Iraq. United States Envoy assures that Indo-US relations will not be hampered by the refusal.
In a press conference in Belfast, journalist Seán Ó Muireagáin denies Israeli claims that suspected Real IRA activist. He states that he is not, and never has been, a member or supporter of the IRA. Israel repeats that the arrest of Ó Muireagáin was "unfortunate" but refuses to apologise. Israel's treatment of Ó Muireagáin is strongly criticised in Ireland. SDLP ex-minister Sean Farren states that Ó Muireagáin is "well known and respected" in Northern Ireland.
Evangelist and former United States Presidential candidate Pat Robertson announces his "massive prayer offensive" dubbed "Operation Supreme Court Freedom", asking Americans to pray that at least three United States Supreme Court justices retire so that the court can be filled with conservative justices who will overturn Supreme Court rulings on school prayer, separation of church and state and sodomy.
The Uniting Church in Australia votes to officially recognise and approve of homosexual clergy. (ABC (Australia) news report) July 18, 2003
U.S. Basketball: Eagle County, Colorado District Attorney Mark Hurlbert announces that Los Angeles Lakers star Kobe Bryant has been charged with one count of felony sexual assault, stemming from a June 30 incident at a gated resort involving a 19-year-old woman.
The corpse of Dr. David Kelly is discovered, it appears that he committed suicide. Kelly was a British government advisor involved in the September Dossier investigation relating to the 2003 war on Iraq. Former Labour Junior Minister Glenda Jackson calls for Prime Minister Blair's resignation and a Mail on Sunday reporter asks, "Do you have blood on your hands. Prime Minister?" Blair refuses to comment, as does Communications Director Campbell. 
The United States Senate passes a defense appropriations bill which explicitly forbids the Department of Defense from spending any money on Terrorist Information Awareness research, effectively putting an end to the Information Awareness Office. 
Convention on the Future of Europe finished its work and proposed the first European constitution. July 19, 2003
The US Governing Council of Iraq announces that it has failed to select a new Iraqi President. 
Doctors in Vienna transplant a human tongue at Vienna General Hospital.  July 20, 2003
16 people are injured after two bombs explode outside tax offices in Nice, France. 
Richard Sambrook, the Director of BBC News reveals that Dr. David Kelly was the source of claims that Downing Street had "sexed up" the September Dossier. (see also: Dodgy Dossier)
Former Ugandan dictator Idi Amin is in a coma at a hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and Uganda has refused permission for him to return.
British Open (golf): Rookie Ben Curtis, ranked 396th in the world, becomes the first golfer to win a major golf tournament in the first attempt in more than 90 years.
14 people - a US family of 12 who had chartered the plane and the South African crew of 2 - die when a light plane crashes into Mount Kenya after taking off from Nairobi for Buffalo Springs National Reserve in northern Kenya.  July 21, 2003
npr.org's All Things Considered program aired a humorous article on the Wiki phenomenon, and on Wikipedia.org.
Jong-Wook Lee becomes the new Director-General of the World Health Organization.
SCO v. IBM Linux lawsuit: SCO Group announces that it intends to sell binary-only licences to use the free Linux operating system which will remove the threat of litigation from licence-holders. Linux advocates react by stating that SCO has no basis for this action, and that doing this may cause SCO to forfeit their rights under the GNU GPL to use or distribute Linux or Linux-derived code in any form. SCO press release CNet story
In Puerto Rico, 25 people are seriously injured after a roof collapse in a Vega Alta, Puerto Rico mall. (in Spanish) July 22, 2003
John Manley, Deputy Prime Minister of Canada, drops out of the race to succeed Jean Chrétien as leader of the Liberal Party of Canada and Prime Minister after conceding he cannot catch front-runner Paul Martin, Jr.. July 23, 2003
Die Zeit, a German newspaper, publishes an opinion poll which claims that almost one in three Germans under the age of 30 believe the United States government "could have ordered the September 11 attacks [on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon] itself". 1000 people took part in the survey.
California officials announce that over 110% of the required signatures to force a recall election of Governor Gray Davis are in setting the stage for what will be the first gubernatorial recall election in the United States in 82 years.
New York City Councilman from Brooklyn, James E. Davis is assassinated at City Hall by former political opponent Othniel Askew.
Zahra Kazemi affair: Bill Graham, the Canadian Minister of Foreign Affairs, announces that Ms. Kazemi's body has been buried in Iran, contrary to her family's wishes. Consequently, Canada has recalled its ambassador to Iran.
The Minister of Justice in Finland, Johannes Koskinen, said that there could be legalized brothels for example for handicapped people. He got very angry response of organizations for handicapped. 66% of people in Ilta-Sanomat newspaper's readers said that prostitution must be under state control. July 24, 2003
The United States' provisional authority in Iraq releases photos of what are presumably the dead bodies of Uday and Qusay Hussein in an attempt to show the Iraqi people proof that the two were actually killed in a U.S. military operation.
California lieutenant governor Cruz Bustamante announces that governor Gray Davis will face a recall election on October 7. This will be the second gubernatorial recall election in the United States history (the first occurred 82 years beforehand).
Italian officials have decided to attempt a restoration of Michelangelo's David using distilled water. 
Colin McMillan, President Bush's nominee for the post of United States Secretary of the Navy, dies of an apparently self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head.
Jueves negro: Violent rioting follows on from political demonstrations in Guatemala City. (BBC) July 25, 2003
United States swimmer Michael Phelps breaks world records in the butterfly and individual medley at the World Swimming Championships in Barcelona to become the first man ever to break two records at a single meet. (BBC)
Palestinian Prime Minister Mahmoud Abbas meets with US President George W. Bush at the White House (White House press release). July 26, 2003
U.S.-led occupation of Iraq: Three US soldiers are killed while guarding a Baquouba children's hospital northeast of Baghdad, Iraq bringing the number of US troops killed in combat to 161, 14 more than the 1991 Gulf War total.  July 27, 2003
Comedian Bob Hope dies in his sleep 
A group of approximately 50 rogue soldiers from the Armed Forces of the Philippines seizes a portion of a shopping mall and the adjacent hotel in Makati City, Metro Manila in the Philippines demanding President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo's resignation. They claim to have surrounded the occupied zones with explosives and have temporarily held several people in the hotel, including Australian Ambassador Ruth Pierce. The group is said by some officials to be connected to ousted President Joseph Estrada and oppositionist Senator Gregorio Honasan, who staged several coup attempts in the late 1980s.  
The BBC reports that an extensive investigation of Loch Ness by a BBC team, using 600 separate sonar beams, found no trace of any "sea monster" in the loch. Loch Ness is a popular tourist attraction because of the rumors surrounding an alleged monster or plesiosaur populating the lake (see Loch Ness Monster). The BBC team stated that it is now conclusively proven that "Nessie" does not exist. 
2003 Tour de France: Lance Armstrong wins his 5th consecutive Tour de France. July 28, 2003
The United Nations Security Council appoints Harri Holkeri to head the temporary civilian administration UNMIK in Kosovo.
Ambassador Ole Wøhlers Olsen, the Muslim Danish coordinator for the U.S.-led provisional authority in southern Iraq resigns unexpectingly, to be replaced by Sir Hilary Synnott, currently the British High Commissioner to Pakistan. Ambassador Olsen, who has been critical of the lack of support for his reconstruction efforts, declared the British and Danish foreign services have chosen to replace him now instead of in October, as earlier planned, stating that he himself had been prepared to continue his work in Basra.  July 30, 2003
In Puebla, Puebla, Mexico, the last production Volkswagen Beetle, nicknamed El Rey, rolls off the production line.
Ibrahim al-Jaafari, a Shi'ite Muslim and chief spokesman for the Islamic Dawa Party, which was banned during Saddam's rule, is picked to be the first of nine men who will serve one-month stints leading postwar Iraq. He will hold the presidency in August.
A Canadian concert, Molson Canadian Rocks for Toronto, attended by 450,000 people, takes place to show that SARS is no longer in Toronto and to raise money for health care and hospitality workers affected by the outbreak.
Posted by qwertyuio at 11:31 AM
Thursday, May 1, 2008
In music, a limit is a number measuring the harmony of an interval. The lower the number, the more consonant the interval is considered to be. There are two different kinds of limits: prime limits and odd limits.
The concept of limit only makes sense when applied to intervals appearing in the harmonic series which can be represented as the ratios of whole numbers; its use in describing intervals in equal temperament rests on the fact that these intervals closely approximate intervals found in the harmonic series. In just intonation, any given interval can be expressed as the ratio between two frequencies, such as 4:3 for the perfect fourth or 10:9 for the minor tone. The limits for such intervals are defined as follows:
The odd limit only regards pitch classes. (That is, it treats pitches the same when they differ only in the octave.) Mathematically, this is achieved by dividing any even numbers in the fraction repeatedly by 2 until both numerator and denominator are odd. The limit is then defined as the bigger number of the two. Thus the odd limit of the perfect fourth is 3, while the minor tone has an odd limit of 9.
The prime limit can be seen as a generalization that does not favor the number 2. It is defined as the largest prime number in the factorization of both numerator and denominator. That is, in number theoretic terms, it measures the smoothness of the numerator and denominator. The prime limit of the perfect fourth is 3 (the same as the odd limit), but the minor tone has a prime limit of 5, because 9 can be factorized into 3×3, and 10 into 2×5.
Prime limits, scales and microtonal music
Prime limits lend themselves for the investigation of scales. This is because in a scale in which all notes form an interval from the base note that remains within a certain prime limit, all other intervals between these notes remain within the same limit. This can be shown using the following diatonic scale:
This scale is defined such that all pitches remain within a 5-limit (relative to the base note). As can be seen, that same condition holds for the steps between neighboring pitches. All resulting intervals between any two pitches include all of the intervals necessary for major and minor triads, which are the building-blocks of tonal music. Thus, almost all music composed is in five-limit — it uses relationships based only on the fifth partial or below, and all intervals can be described as ratios of regular numbers.
In the harmonic series, every even-numbered partial is the octave duplication of another lower one. Every prime-numbered partial introduces a new relationship; just as the five-limit primes (1, 2, 3 and 5) introduce new types of intervals (unisons, octaves, fifths, and thirds, respectively), higher primes (such as 7, 11, 13 and beyond) introduce intervals that are foreign to most music. Septimal meantone temperaments such as 31 equal temperament provide approximations to 7-limit intervals. Some believe that blue notes are derived from 7-limit intervals.
In the twentieth century, Harry Partch developed a system of just intonation microtonal music that included intervals up to the 11-limit. Ben Johnston extended Partch's system, composing music based on a flexible tuning system that derives pitches from as high as the 31-limit. Others, including La Monte Young, have based music on higher primes than 31.
Posted by qwertyuio at 11:09 AM
Wednesday, April 30, 2008
Luserna (Cimbrian: Lusèrn) is a comune (municipality) in the Autonomous Province of Trento in the Italian region Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, located about 25 km southeast of Trento. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 284 and an area of 8.2 km².
Posted by qwertyuio at 11:52 AM
Tuesday, April 29, 2008
List of forms of government
A monarchy, from the Greek μονος, "one", and αρχειν, "to rule", is a form of government in which a monarch, usually a single person, is the head of state.
In most monarchies, the monarch holds their position for life (in some republics the head of state, often styled president, also remains in office for life, but in most is elected for a term of office, after which he or she must step down). There are currently 31 monarchs reigning over 45 extant sovereign monarchies in the world; the disconnect in numbers between monarchs and countries is explained by the fact that the sixteen Commonwealth Realms - vast geographic areas including the trans-continental realms of Canada and Australia - are separately reigned over in personal union by one person, and one other monarchy, Andorra, by two non-resident (French and Spanish) co-monarchs.
The term monarchy is also used to refer to the people (especially the dynasty, also known as royalty) and institutions that make up the royal or imperial establishment, or to the realm over which the monarch reigns.
Monarchs serve as symbols of continuity and statehood. Today, the extent of a monarch's actual powers varies from monarchy to monarchy. In constitutional monarchies, wherein sovereignty rests formally with the crown but politically with 'the people' (usually the electorate, as represented by a parliament), the monarch now usually serves largely ceremonial functions, except in times of crisis. Many monarchies are constituted by tradition or by codified law, so that the monarch has little real political power; in others the monarch holds some power but is limited from exercising it by popular or precedential opinion; in still others the monarch holds substantial power and may exercise it without limit.
Monarchy is one of the oldest forms of government, with echoes in the leadership of tribal chiefs. Many monarchs once claimed to rule by divine right, or at least by divine grace, ruling either by the will of the god(s) or even claiming to be (incarnated) gods themselves; cfr. theocracy. Monarchs have also been selected by election (either in a broad popular assembly, as in Germanic tribal states; or by a small body, such as in the Holy Roman Empire; or by dynastic succession; or by conquest as in Malaysia and the UAE; or a combination of any number of ways). In some early systems the monarch was overthrown or sacrificed when it became apparent that divine sanction had been withdrawn.
Since 1800, most of the world's monarchies have been abolished by dismemberment or annexation, or have been transformed into republics; most current countries that are monarchies are constitutional ones. Among the few states that retain a rather absolute monarchy are Bhutan, Brunei, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland and the Vatican City (the papal city-state, an electoral theocracy). In Jordan and Morocco, the monarch also retains considerable power. There are also recent (2003) developments in Liechtenstein, wherein the regnant prince was given the constitutional power to dismiss the government at will. Nepal had several swings between constitutional rule and direct rule related to the Maoist rebel movement and killings by a suicidal crown prince.
Tyranny Types of Monarchy
The rules for selection of monarchs varies from country to country. In constitutional monarchies the rule of succession is generally embodied in a law passed by a representative body, such as a parliament.
Elective monarchies, distinguished by the monarchs being appointed for life, have in most cases been succeeded by hereditary monarchies, but both secular sovereign nation cases at present - those of Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates - are 20th-century creations. In the hereditary system, the position of monarch involves inheritance according to an order of succession, usually within one royal family tracing its origin back to a historical dynasty or bloodline. In some cases the ruling family may claim to hold authority by virtue of the associated god's choosing, as reflected in the style-phrase "by the Grace of God," or other religion-based authority.
The order of succession in most European monarchical states of the 21st century is by primogeniture, meaning that either the eldest child of the monarch or the eldest son of the monarch is first in line. Currently, there is some controversy over the succession laws of some monarchies such as that of the United Kingdom (UK), Canadian, or the Scandinavian monarchies, which require their monarch to be of a certain faith (in the Commonwealth Realms under the Act of Settlement 1701). This has been challenged as violating European Union rules that prohibit religious disqualification for positions of state authority, as well as a violation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
Historically, successions in dependent states could be subject to the assent of the (colonial or other) dominant power, which then often reserved the right to dethrone (and replace) a 'disloyal' incumbent.
Official styles and titles of monarchs often reflect the ambitions and ideals of the governments they head or represent and actual historical ties or claims to territories no longer under their administration or even extinguished as political units.
Some titles are specifically designed to express a relative rank, usually higher if self-assumed, as in the case of King of Kings and various equivalents, or Tipu Sultan who assumed the rank Padshah Bahadur when declaring his new Muslim empire Khudadad independent from the Mughal Padshah, it has no other meaning then 'in rank above Padhsah'. Some monarchic titles suggest a unique exalted rank, even universal supremacy, such as the Caliph, and yet there may be parallel dynasties, e.g. a branch of the Umayyad in Cordoba while the Oriental caliphate had been take over by the Abassids (in Baghdad). Other titles are perceived as carrying a protocolary rank, so granting (often as a reward for a loyal vassal) or assuming (as an assertion) a higher title can mean a 'promotion' regardless of political reality.
Additional elements in the full style may refer to the legitimation of the throne, either directly as by a phrase like "by the Grace of God," or indirectly by referring to a legitimating function, such as protecting the official religion, e.g. for a Muslim ruler by the style Commander of the faithful. The Protestant Successors to Henry VIII of England have all retained the "Defender of the Faith" originally granted by the Pope to Henry VIII Tudor before the 'annulment crises' lead to the Anglican Schism.
Queen Elizabeth II is "by the Grace of God, Queen" in fifteen of her sixteen realms, only Papua New Guinea omitting this phrase from her title there. During Spain's transition to a constitutional monarchy under Isabella II, her Style was changed from the 'Long Form' which included "by the Grace of God" and some 20 states to "By divine grace and the constitution, queen of the Spains".
The kings and queens of England and Great Britain retained the title King of France until the union with Ireland to form the United Kingdom in 1801, during the reign of King George III. The kings and queens of Spain retained a long list of kingdoms, that didn't include Spain until Isabella II in 1837. The Council of Ministers (1987) authorized Juan Carlos I, King of Spain, to also use "historical titles," presumably including the crusader relict King of Jerusalem.
Titles as Political Statements
Monarchies can come to an end in several ways. There may be a revolution in which the monarchy is overthrown; or, as in Italy, the electorate decides to form a republic by constitutional referendum. In some cases, as with England and Spain, the monarchy has been overthrown and later restored. After the abdication of Napoleon I, which ended the First Empire, the French restored the royal Bourbon dynasty which had been abolished by the republic within which Napoleon had established the Empire. At the same time, his emperorship was "revived" outside France, as a "golden cage" principality was created for him on the island of Elba, so in a sense the empire was succeeded by a kingdom and an emperor without an empire.
Dependent monarchies have been abolished by their dominant power, often for the purposes of being fully annexed, split or merged with another. In Uganda, for example, local tribal monarchies were abolished when the country became a unitary state.
The most recent monarchy to be abolished was the former Commonwealth Realm monarchy of Mauritius in 1992. In 1999 Australians voted to keep their status as a monarchy under Queen Elizabeth II.
Countries may regard themselves as monarchies even without an actual monarch on the vacant throne, as Spain did from 1947 to 1975, and Hungary from 1920 to 1946.
A person who can be taken into consideration as future monarch in case of restoration of monarchy (or who even claims to be the legitimate heir to the throne of a deposed or in the royalist view suspended monarchy) is called a pretender, but that term also applies to a rival claimant of a filled throne, such as the several Russians who claimed to be a Tsar simultaneously.
See also abolished monarchy for a list of recently-abolished monarchies.
Demise of monarchies
Sometimes, component members of federal states are monarchies, even though the federal state as a whole is not; for example each of the emirates that form the United Arab Emirates has its own monarch (an emir). Another unique situation is Malaysia, in which the federal king, called the Yang di-Pertuan Agong or Paramount Ruler, is elected for a five year term from and by the hereditary rulers (mostly sultans) of nine of the federation's constitutive States, all on the Malay peninsula.
In addition to his ecclesiastical role as Supreme Pontiff of all Christians worldwide in communion with the Bishop of Rome, the Pope is ex officio the absolute monarch of Vatican City, the last truly sovereign Prince of the Church. He is elected by (and customarily from among) the College of Cardinals. (Since the Catholic episcopate is celibate, naturally there can be no official hereditary succession to the papal throne.) Notwithstanding this, the papacy has at times been under the control of powerful Italian families. Several popes have been succeeded by near relatives (officially described as Nepotes, literally 'nephews').
Andorra is the world's only co-principality: it had two co-princes: the Bishop of Urgell in Spain (thus a Prince-Bishop), and the President of France—a unique case where an independent country's Monarch is democratically elected by the citizens of another country, which is not even in full personal union.
Since 1947, the Emperors of Japan have reigned as neither sovereign, nor the de jure head of state. Emperor Hirohito having ceded sovereignty to the people shortly after World War II, the Japanese monarchy is bound by supreme law as opposed to constitutional convention under the provisos of the Constitution of Japan.
Early societies may become oligarchies as an outgrowth of an alliance between rival tribal chieftains or as the result of a caste system. Oligarchies can often become instruments of transformation, by insisting that monarchs or dictators share power, thereby opening the door to power-sharing by other elements of society (while oligarchy means "the rule of the few," monarchy means "the rule of the one"). One example of power-sharing from one person to a larger group of persons occurred when English nobles banded together in 1215 to force a reluctant King John of England to sign the Magna Carta, a tacit recognition both of King John's waning political power and of the existence of an incipient oligarchy (the nobility). As English society continued to grow and develop, the Magna Carta was repeatedly revised (1216, 1217, and 1225), guaranteeing greater rights to greater numbers of people, thus setting the stage for English constitutional monarchy.
Oligarchies may also evolve into more autocratic or monarchist forms of government, sometimes as the result of one family gaining ascendancy over the others. Many of the European monarchies established during the late Middle Ages began in this way.
Monarchy and Oligarchy
Arguments for and against monarchies
Monarchists rely amongst others to the following arguments:
A (future) monarch is considered as more competent for the office than an elected president because of his possibility to be prepared from childhood on.
A monarchy can be lower-cost than a republic because of missing presidential elections and the fact the familial fortune may suffice to supply the imperial/royal family so that additional official benefits can be economized (in contrast to the republican system in which imcumbent and former presidents have to been paid domicile, pension, bureau and official car by the exchequer).
Presidential elections expose future Head of states to the habitual competition during periods of election campaigns. Monarchists consider this as very damaging for the reputation of a Head of state.
The fact that a future president normally belongs to a political party is contradictory to a Head of state's function as neutral representative of the country and the people. Only a non-party monarch is seen as able to fulfill this role.
Presidents always have to act accordingly to their party's program and ideas while a monarch can reign independently of certain political directions.
A monarch is seen as a better (visible) symbol of national identity and unity.
The republic is blamed to produce political incertitude because of the permanent change of Head of States while monarchy serves as a symbol of continuity. Some monarchists argue that monarchy doesn't only serve as a symbol but even really guarantees political stability: They justify this point of view with the fact that abolition of monarchy often led to civil wars and the rise of totalitarian systems; for example, National Socialism in Germany, Jacobinism in France, Communism in Russia, and Maoism in China. Arguments against monarchies
Currently 45 nations in the world have monarchs as heads of state, 16 of which are Commonwealth Realms that formally recognize Queen Elizabeth II as their head of state and Prince Charles as heir.
Current monarchies of the world
Not only are the Monarchs of constitutive monarchies part of the federal establishment of both present elective monarchies (Malaysia, mainly sultanates, and the UAE, so named after its emirates), in many other modern states -often republics- tribal and other traditional states persist, with a dynasty that retains a court and often local prestige and influence; some are officially installed with the consent of the official government (as some of the many in Indonesia- waiting for the go-ahead can mean years of vacancy on the throne), others are merely condoned, or even in exile.
In many countries that are legally republics, an heir to the throne is recognized by the royalist part of the nation. A list of such countries is available in the pretender article.
Monarchies of Burma
List of Danish monarchs
Monarchies of Ethiopia
Emperor of Japan
King of Ireland
New Zealand Monarchy
List of Nigerian traditional states
Datus of the Philippines
Monarch of Sweden
Posted by qwertyuio at 12:06 PM