Wednesday, April 30, 2008

Luserna (Cimbrian: Lusèrn) is a comune (municipality) in the Autonomous Province of Trento in the Italian region Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, located about 25 km southeast of Trento. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 284 and an area of 8.2 km².

Tuesday, April 29, 2008

List of forms of government
Direct democracy
Representative democracy
Absolute monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
Mixed government
Constitutional republic
Parliamentary republic
Socialist republic
Capitalist republic
A monarchy, from the Greek μονος, "one", and αρχειν, "to rule", is a form of government in which a monarch, usually a single person, is the head of state.
In most monarchies, the monarch holds their position for life (in some republics the head of state, often styled president, also remains in office for life, but in most is elected for a term of office, after which he or she must step down). There are currently 31 monarchs reigning over 45 extant sovereign monarchies in the world; the disconnect in numbers between monarchs and countries is explained by the fact that the sixteen Commonwealth Realms - vast geographic areas including the trans-continental realms of Canada and Australia - are separately reigned over in personal union by one person, and one other monarchy, Andorra, by two non-resident (French and Spanish) co-monarchs.
The term monarchy is also used to refer to the people (especially the dynasty, also known as royalty) and institutions that make up the royal or imperial establishment, or to the realm over which the monarch reigns.
Monarchs serve as symbols of continuity and statehood. Today, the extent of a monarch's actual powers varies from monarchy to monarchy. In constitutional monarchies, wherein sovereignty rests formally with the crown but politically with 'the people' (usually the electorate, as represented by a parliament), the monarch now usually serves largely ceremonial functions, except in times of crisis. Many monarchies are constituted by tradition or by codified law, so that the monarch has little real political power; in others the monarch holds some power but is limited from exercising it by popular or precedential opinion; in still others the monarch holds substantial power and may exercise it without limit.
Monarchy is one of the oldest forms of government, with echoes in the leadership of tribal chiefs. Many monarchs once claimed to rule by divine right, or at least by divine grace, ruling either by the will of the god(s) or even claiming to be (incarnated) gods themselves; cfr. theocracy. Monarchs have also been selected by election (either in a broad popular assembly, as in Germanic tribal states; or by a small body, such as in the Holy Roman Empire; or by dynastic succession; or by conquest as in Malaysia and the UAE; or a combination of any number of ways). In some early systems the monarch was overthrown or sacrificed when it became apparent that divine sanction had been withdrawn.
Since 1800, most of the world's monarchies have been abolished by dismemberment or annexation, or have been transformed into republics; most current countries that are monarchies are constitutional ones. Among the few states that retain a rather absolute monarchy are Bhutan, Brunei, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland and the Vatican City (the papal city-state, an electoral theocracy). In Jordan and Morocco, the monarch also retains considerable power. There are also recent (2003) developments in Liechtenstein, wherein the regnant prince was given the constitutional power to dismiss the government at will. Nepal had several swings between constitutional rule and direct rule related to the Maoist rebel movement and killings by a suicidal crown prince.

Communist state
Single-party state
Tyranny Types of Monarchy
The rules for selection of monarchs varies from country to country. In constitutional monarchies the rule of succession is generally embodied in a law passed by a representative body, such as a parliament.
Elective monarchies, distinguished by the monarchs being appointed for life, have in most cases been succeeded by hereditary monarchies, but both secular sovereign nation cases at present - those of Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates - are 20th-century creations. In the hereditary system, the position of monarch involves inheritance according to an order of succession, usually within one royal family tracing its origin back to a historical dynasty or bloodline. In some cases the ruling family may claim to hold authority by virtue of the associated god's choosing, as reflected in the style-phrase "by the Grace of God," or other religion-based authority.
The order of succession in most European monarchical states of the 21st century is by primogeniture, meaning that either the eldest child of the monarch or the eldest son of the monarch is first in line. Currently, there is some controversy over the succession laws of some monarchies such as that of the United Kingdom (UK), Canadian, or the Scandinavian monarchies, which require their monarch to be of a certain faith (in the Commonwealth Realms under the Act of Settlement 1701). This has been challenged as violating European Union rules that prohibit religious disqualification for positions of state authority, as well as a violation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
Historically, successions in dependent states could be subject to the assent of the (colonial or other) dominant power, which then often reserved the right to dethrone (and replace) a 'disloyal' incumbent.

Kingdom Succession
Official styles and titles of monarchs often reflect the ambitions and ideals of the governments they head or represent and actual historical ties or claims to territories no longer under their administration or even extinguished as political units.
Some titles are specifically designed to express a relative rank, usually higher if self-assumed, as in the case of King of Kings and various equivalents, or Tipu Sultan who assumed the rank Padshah Bahadur when declaring his new Muslim empire Khudadad independent from the Mughal Padshah, it has no other meaning then 'in rank above Padhsah'. Some monarchic titles suggest a unique exalted rank, even universal supremacy, such as the Caliph, and yet there may be parallel dynasties, e.g. a branch of the Umayyad in Cordoba while the Oriental caliphate had been take over by the Abassids (in Baghdad). Other titles are perceived as carrying a protocolary rank, so granting (often as a reward for a loyal vassal) or assuming (as an assertion) a higher title can mean a 'promotion' regardless of political reality.
Additional elements in the full style may refer to the legitimation of the throne, either directly as by a phrase like "by the Grace of God," or indirectly by referring to a legitimating function, such as protecting the official religion, e.g. for a Muslim ruler by the style Commander of the faithful. The Protestant Successors to Henry VIII of England have all retained the "Defender of the Faith" originally granted by the Pope to Henry VIII Tudor before the 'annulment crises' lead to the Anglican Schism.
Queen Elizabeth II is "by the Grace of God, Queen" in fifteen of her sixteen realms, only Papua New Guinea omitting this phrase from her title there. During Spain's transition to a constitutional monarchy under Isabella II, her Style was changed from the 'Long Form' which included "by the Grace of God" and some 20 states to "By divine grace and the constitution, queen of the Spains".
The kings and queens of England and Great Britain retained the title King of France until the union with Ireland to form the United Kingdom in 1801, during the reign of King George III. The kings and queens of Spain retained a long list of kingdoms, that didn't include Spain until Isabella II in 1837. The Council of Ministers (1987) authorized Juan Carlos I, King of Spain, to also use "historical titles," presumably including the crusader relict King of Jerusalem.

Titles as Political Statements
Monarchies can come to an end in several ways. There may be a revolution in which the monarchy is overthrown; or, as in Italy, the electorate decides to form a republic by constitutional referendum. In some cases, as with England and Spain, the monarchy has been overthrown and later restored. After the abdication of Napoleon I, which ended the First Empire, the French restored the royal Bourbon dynasty which had been abolished by the republic within which Napoleon had established the Empire. At the same time, his emperorship was "revived" outside France, as a "golden cage" principality was created for him on the island of Elba, so in a sense the empire was succeeded by a kingdom and an emperor without an empire.
Dependent monarchies have been abolished by their dominant power, often for the purposes of being fully annexed, split or merged with another. In Uganda, for example, local tribal monarchies were abolished when the country became a unitary state.
The most recent monarchy to be abolished was the former Commonwealth Realm monarchy of Mauritius in 1992. In 1999 Australians voted to keep their status as a monarchy under Queen Elizabeth II.
Countries may regard themselves as monarchies even without an actual monarch on the vacant throne, as Spain did from 1947 to 1975, and Hungary from 1920 to 1946.
A person who can be taken into consideration as future monarch in case of restoration of monarchy (or who even claims to be the legitimate heir to the throne of a deposed or in the royalist view suspended monarchy) is called a pretender, but that term also applies to a rival claimant of a filled throne, such as the several Russians who claimed to be a Tsar simultaneously.
See also abolished monarchy for a list of recently-abolished monarchies.

Demise of monarchies
Sometimes, component members of federal states are monarchies, even though the federal state as a whole is not; for example each of the emirates that form the United Arab Emirates has its own monarch (an emir). Another unique situation is Malaysia, in which the federal king, called the Yang di-Pertuan Agong or Paramount Ruler, is elected for a five year term from and by the hereditary rulers (mostly sultans) of nine of the federation's constitutive States, all on the Malay peninsula.
In addition to his ecclesiastical role as Supreme Pontiff of all Christians worldwide in communion with the Bishop of Rome, the Pope is ex officio the absolute monarch of Vatican City, the last truly sovereign Prince of the Church. He is elected by (and customarily from among) the College of Cardinals. (Since the Catholic episcopate is celibate, naturally there can be no official hereditary succession to the papal throne.) Notwithstanding this, the papacy has at times been under the control of powerful Italian families. Several popes have been succeeded by near relatives (officially described as Nepotes, literally 'nephews').
Andorra is the world's only co-principality: it had two co-princes: the Bishop of Urgell in Spain (thus a Prince-Bishop), and the President of France—a unique case where an independent country's Monarch is democratically elected by the citizens of another country, which is not even in full personal union.
Since 1947, the Emperors of Japan have reigned as neither sovereign, nor the de jure head of state. Emperor Hirohito having ceded sovereignty to the people shortly after World War II, the Japanese monarchy is bound by supreme law as opposed to constitutional convention under the provisos of the Constitution of Japan.

Unusual Monarchies
Early societies may become oligarchies as an outgrowth of an alliance between rival tribal chieftains or as the result of a caste system. Oligarchies can often become instruments of transformation, by insisting that monarchs or dictators share power, thereby opening the door to power-sharing by other elements of society (while oligarchy means "the rule of the few," monarchy means "the rule of the one"). One example of power-sharing from one person to a larger group of persons occurred when English nobles banded together in 1215 to force a reluctant King John of England to sign the Magna Carta, a tacit recognition both of King John's waning political power and of the existence of an incipient oligarchy (the nobility). As English society continued to grow and develop, the Magna Carta was repeatedly revised (1216, 1217, and 1225), guaranteeing greater rights to greater numbers of people, thus setting the stage for English constitutional monarchy.
Oligarchies may also evolve into more autocratic or monarchist forms of government, sometimes as the result of one family gaining ascendancy over the others. Many of the European monarchies established during the late Middle Ages began in this way.

Monarchy and Oligarchy

Arguments for and against monarchies
Monarchists rely amongst others to the following arguments:

A (future) monarch is considered as more competent for the office than an elected president because of his possibility to be prepared from childhood on.
A monarchy can be lower-cost than a republic because of missing presidential elections and the fact the familial fortune may suffice to supply the imperial/royal family so that additional official benefits can be economized (in contrast to the republican system in which imcumbent and former presidents have to been paid domicile, pension, bureau and official car by the exchequer).
Presidential elections expose future Head of states to the habitual competition during periods of election campaigns. Monarchists consider this as very damaging for the reputation of a Head of state.
The fact that a future president normally belongs to a political party is contradictory to a Head of state's function as neutral representative of the country and the people. Only a non-party monarch is seen as able to fulfill this role.
Presidents always have to act accordingly to their party's program and ideas while a monarch can reign independently of certain political directions.
A monarch is seen as a better (visible) symbol of national identity and unity.
The republic is blamed to produce political incertitude because of the permanent change of Head of States while monarchy serves as a symbol of continuity. Some monarchists argue that monarchy doesn't only serve as a symbol but even really guarantees political stability: They justify this point of view with the fact that abolition of monarchy often led to civil wars and the rise of totalitarian systems; for example, National Socialism in Germany, Jacobinism in France, Communism in Russia, and Maoism in China. Kingdom Arguments against monarchies
Currently 45 nations in the world have monarchs as heads of state, 16 of which are Commonwealth Realms that formally recognize Queen Elizabeth II as their head of state and Prince Charles as heir.

Current monarchies of the world
Not only are the Monarchs of constitutive monarchies part of the federal establishment of both present elective monarchies (Malaysia, mainly sultanates, and the UAE, so named after its emirates), in many other modern states -often republics- tribal and other traditional states persist, with a dynasty that retains a court and often local prestige and influence; some are officially installed with the consent of the official government (as some of the many in Indonesia- waiting for the go-ahead can mean years of vacancy on the throne), others are merely condoned, or even in exile.
In many countries that are legally republics, an heir to the throne is recognized by the royalist part of the nation. A list of such countries is available in the pretender article.

See also

Australian Monarchy
Belgian monarchy
British Monarchy
Monarchies of Burma
Canadian Monarchy
List of Danish monarchs
Monarchies of Ethiopia
Cokossian Monarchy
Dutch monarchy
Emperor of Japan
Indonesian Monarchies
King of Ireland
Kotokolian Monarchy
New Zealand Monarchy
List of Nigerian traditional states
Norwegian monarchy
Datus of the Philippines
Monarch of Sweden
Tenkodogo Monarchy
Wogodogo Monarchy

Saturday, April 26, 2008

Mark John Geragos (born October 5, 1957) is an American criminal defense attorney best known for defending pop-star Michael Jackson, actress Winona Ryder, Gary Condit, and Susan McDougal, who was involved in the Whitewater scandal. He also represented Scott Peterson, in another trial that received widespread media attention.


Notable clients

Lindsay Lohan
Geragos first came to national attention with back-to-back acquittals in both State and Federal Court jury trials for Whitewater figure Susan McDougal, the former business partner of former President Bill Clinton.

Susan McDougal
In December 2002, Geragos defended Academy award–nominated actress Winona Ryder on charges of stealing more than $5,500 worth of merchandise from a Beverly Hills, California store in 2001. She was sentenced to three years probation and ordered to undergo psychological and drug counseling.

Winona Ryder
In the early stages of the Michael Jackson molestation case, Geragos handled that case as well as Scott Peterson's death penalty case simultaneously. Though he managed a busy workload since he began working as a lawyer, during this time, he was handling two of the United States's best-known cases. Geragos's "...crushingly busy calendar" in the courtroom earned him a rebuke by a judge in an embezzlement case Geragos was also trying. Less than a year later Scott Peterson, Geragos's other high profile case, was convicted and sentenced to death.

Michael Jackson & Scott Peterson
In 2006, Geragos was back in the headlines for representing Barry Bonds's personal trainer Greg Anderson. On July 5, 2006, Anderson was found in contempt of court by U.S. District Judge William Alsup who jailed Anderson for refusing to testify before a federal grand jury investigating perjury accusations against Bonds. Geragos announced he would file an appeal based on his assertion that the subpoena to testify violated Anderson's July 2005 plea bargain agreement in the Bay Area Laboratory Co-operative case. [2] Anderson was to be held until he agreed to testify or the grand jury's term expired. Geragos has said his client would not testify. [3] The grand jury expired on July 20, 2006, and Anderson was released from prison two weeks later. [4] On August 28, 2006, Anderson was again found in contempt of court for refusing to testify before a newly convened grand jury and sentenced to prison. [5]Anderson was freed on October 5, 2006 after an order from the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals found that the Trial Judge had committed legal errors and ordered Anderson's immediate release. Anderson was sent back to jail on November 16, 2006.

Mark Geragos Legal commentary

1999 - Trial Lawyer of The Year by the Los Angeles Criminal Courts Bar Association.

Friday, April 25, 2008

Maryhill Line
The Maryhill Line is a suburban railway line linking Glasgow and Anniesland via Maryhill in Scotland. It is part of the Strathclyde Partnership for Transport network. The line between Glasgow and Maryhill forms a part of the West Highland Line and was re-opened to stopping passenger services in 1993. In 2005 it was extended to Anniesland via a new station at Kelvindale in the north west of the city.
The route serves the following places:
Maryhill Line services connect with the Argyle and North Clyde Lines at Anniesland station.
The line is not electrified. Passenger services are operated by First ScotRail.
Maryhill Line Glasgow Queen Street
Possilpark and Parkhouse

Thursday, April 24, 2008

Glasgow patter or Glaswegian is a dialect spoken in and around Glasgow, Scotland. Glasgow patter has evolved over the centuries amongst the working classes, Irish immigrants and passing seamen in the dockyards. The dialect is anglicised west central lowland Scots or Scottish English depending on viewpoint, and features a varied mix of typical Scots expressions and vocabulary, as well as some examples of rhyming slang, local cultural references and street slang.
The Patter is used widely in everyday speech in Glasgow, even occasionally in broadcasting and print. It often reflects the Glasgow sense of humour. 'The Patter', as with all dialects, is constantly evolving and updating itself, forever generating new euphemisms, as well as nicknames for well-known local figures and buildings.

Glasgow patterGlasgow patter Reference books
Michael Munro wrote a light-hearted yet accurate and informative guide to Glasgow Patter entitled The Patter, first published in 1985. With humorous illustrations by David Neilson, and later by Paisley-born artist and playwright John Byrne, the book became very popular in Glasgow and the rest of Scotland, and was followed up by The Patter - Another Blast in 1988, with The Complete Patter, an updated compendium of the first and second books, being published in 1996.
In the 1970s, Glasgow-born comedian Stanley Baxter famously parodied the patter on his television sketch show. "Parliamo Glasgow" was a spoof language teaching programme where Baxter played a language coach, with various scenarios using Glaswegian dialogue were played out for humorous effect.
In 1997, Jamie Stuart, a Church of Scotland elder from the High Carntyne Church, produced "A Glasgow Bible", relating some of the biblical tales in the Glaswegian vernacular.
Popular Scottish television comedies like Rab C. Nesbitt, Chewin' the Fat and Still Game also provide reference material, as well as having contributed popular new expressions to 'The Patter' themselves.

Wednesday, April 23, 2008

Wawrzyniec Grzymała Goślicki (Latin: Laurentius Grimaldius Gosliscius; born between 1530 and 1540, died on October 31, 1607) was a Polish nobleman, Bishop of Poznań (1601-1607), political thinker and philosopher best known for his book De optimo senatore (1568; English translation: The Counsellor, 1598).
Born near Płock, after studying at Kraków's Jagiellonian University and at Padua and Bologna
He was an influence in the framing of Europe's first modern codified national constitution, and the world's second after the USA, the Polish Constitution of May 3, 1791.

Wawrzyniec Grzymała Goślicki See also

Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski
Andrzej Maksymilian Fredro

Tuesday, April 22, 2008

Vola Vale (February 12, 1897 - October 17, 1970) was a silent motion picture actress from Buffalo, New York. She was born Vola Smith.

Vola Vale Model
Vola was married for a time to film director and producer Al Russell. They had a son.
She was a member of Our Club, a group of seventeen of Hollywood's baby cinema stars. Mary Pickford served as honorary president. Fellow members were Mildred Davis, Helen Ferguson, Patsy Ruth Miller, Clara Horton, Gertrude Olmsted, Laura La Plante, Virginia Fox, Colleen Moore, ZaSu Pitts, Lois Wilson, May McAvoy, Gloria Hope, Virginia Valli, Carmel Myers, Edna Murphy, and Carmelita Geraghty
Vola Vale died in Hawthorne, California in 1970, aged 73, of heart disease. She is interred at the Roosevelt Memorial Park in Los Angeles County, California, USA.

Monday, April 21, 2008

The Los Angeles Kings are a professional ice hockey team based in Los Angeles, California. They are members of the Pacific Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League (NHL). Founded on February 9, 1966, when Jack Kent Cooke was awarded an expansion franchise in Los Angeles,
The Kings' closest rival is the Anaheim Ducks, who play approximately thirty-five miles (56.3 km) to the south in Anaheim.

Franchise history
Prior to the Kings arrival in the Los Angeles area, both the Pacific Coast Hockey League (PCHL) and the Western Hockey League (WHL) had several teams in California, including the PCHL's Los Angeles Monarchs of the 1930s and the WHL's Los Angeles Blades of the 1960s.

The "Forum Blue and Gold" years (1967–68 to 1987–88)
In 1987, coin collector Bruce McNall purchased the Kings from Buss, and he turned the team into a Stanley Cup contender almost overnight on August 9, 1988, when he acquired the league's best player, Gretzky himself, in a blockbuster trade with the Oilers that rocked the hockey world, especially north of the border, where Canadians mourned the loss of a player they considered a national treasure. They were forced to trade many of their stronger players, resulting in a roster comprised of Gretzky, Blake and little else. The Kings missed the playoffs for four seasons, from 1993–94 to 1996–97.

Black and silver era (1988–89 to 1997–98)
Phillip Anschutz and Edward Roski bought the Kings out of bankruptcy court in October 1995 and began a rebuilding phase. Meanwhile, Gretzky, who was by this time on the downside of his career, stated publicly that he wanted the team to acquire a forward capable of scoring fifty goals per season and an offensive defenseman. If they failed to do that, he wanted to be traded to a team that was a legitimate Stanley Cup contender.
After all he had done for the game by that time, Gretzky wanted another chance to win an elusive fifth Stanley Cup before retirement. But his public statements forced the Kings' hand, since no team would now give them equal value in a trade because of his demands — the Kings would be at a huge disadvantage in any trade, and this would badly hurt their rebuilding program.
On February 27, 1996, Gretzky was traded, this time to the St. Louis Blues, for forwards Craig Johnson, Patrice Tardif, Roman Vopat, a first-round pick in the 1997 draft (Matt Zultek) and a fifth-round choice in the 1996 draft (Peter Hogan).
In the 2007–2008 off-season, the Kings signed six unrestricted free agents, including center Michal Handzus, left wings Ladislav Nagy and Kyle Calder, and defensemen Tom Preissing, Brad Stuart and Jon Klemm.
Like all NHL teams for the 2007-08 season, the Kings changed jerseys to new Rbk Edge jerseys. The Kings kept their logo, and only made two minor changes to the striping; the shoulder trim was curved to fit the new style and the bottom (purple) stripe was removed, with "Los Angeles" remaining along the bottom edge (silver was changed to purple lettering on the road jerseys, and silver lettering remained on the home jerseys).

Staples Center era (1998–present)
This is a partial list of the last five seasons completed by the Kings. For the full season-by-season history, see Los Angeles Kings seasons
Note: GP = Games played, W = Wins, L = Losses, T = Ties, OTL = Overtime losses/Shootout losses, Pts = Points, GF = Goals for, GA = Goals against, PIM = Penalties in minutes
As of the 2005-06 NHL season, all games will have a winner; the OTL column includes SOL (Shootout losses).

Los Angeles Kings Communications Department (2005). 2005–06 Los Angeles Kings Media Guide. Los Angeles Kings, 129, 210-211.  Season-by-season record

Notable players
As of February 7, 2008.

Current roster

Bob Wall, 1967-69
Larry Cahan, 1969-71
Bob Pulford, 1971-73
Terry Harper, 1973-75
Mike Murphy, 1975-81
Dave Lewis, 1981-83
Terry Ruskowski, 1983-85
Dave Taylor, 1985-89
Wayne Gretzky, 1989-96
Luc Robitaille, 1992-93
Rob Blake, 1996-2001
Mattias Norstrom, 2001-07
Rob Blake, 2007- present Hall of famers

16 Marcel Dionne, C, 1975-87, number retired November 8, 1990
18 Dave Taylor, LW/RW, 1977-94, number retired April 3, 1995
20 Luc Robitaille, LW, 1986-94, 1997-2001, & 2003-06, number retired January 20, 2007
30 Rogatien "Rogie" Vachon, G, 1972-78, number retired February 14, 1985
99 Wayne Gretzky, C, 1988-96, number retired by the league on February 6, 2000 and by the team on October 9, 2002 Retired numbers
As voted by the media and fans, an all time Kings team was selected to celebrate the club's 40th anniversary in the NHL The first and second teams were as follows:
Goalies: 1st team - Rogatien "Rogie" Vachon, 2nd team - Kelly HrudeyLos Angeles Kings Defensemen: 1st team - Rob Blake and Steve Duchesne, 2nd team - Larry Murphy and Bob Murdoch Centers: 1st team - Wayne Gretzky, 2nd team - Marcel Dionne Forwards: 1st team - Dave Taylor and Luc Robitaille, 2nd team, Charlie Simmer and Mike Murphy Coach: 1st team - Bob Pulford, 2nd team - Barry Melrose

All time Kings team

1967: Rick Pagnutti (1st overall)
1968: Jim McInally (7th overall)
1969: None
1970: None
1971: None
1972: None
1973: None
1974: None
1975: Tim Young (16th overall)
1976: None
1977: None
1978: None
1979: Jay Wells (16th overall)
1980: Larry Murphy (4th overall) & Jim Fox (10th overall)
1981: Doug Smith (2nd overall)
1982: None
1983: None
1984: Craig Redmond (6th overall)
1985: Craig Duncanson (9th overall) & Dan Gratton (10th overall)
1986: Jimmy Carson (2nd overall)
1987: Wayne McBean (4th overall)
1988: Martin Gelinas (7th overall)
1989: None
1990: Darryl Sydor (7th overall)
1991: None
1992: None
1993: None
1994: Jamie Storr (7th overall)
1995: Aki Berg (3rd overall)
1996: None
1997: Olli Jokinen (3rd overall) & Matt Zultek (15th overall)
1998: Mathieu Biron (21st overall)
1999: None
2000: Alexander Frolov (20th overall)
2001: Jens Karlsson (18th overall) & Dave Steckel (30th overall)
2002: Denis Grebeshkov (20th overall)
2003: Dustin Brown (13th overall), Brian Boyle (26th overall), & Jeff Tambellini (27th overall)
2004: Lauri Tukonen (11th overall)
2005: Anze Kopitar (11th overall)
2006: Jonathan Bernier (11th overall) & Trevor Lewis (17th overall)
2007: Thomas Hickey (4th overall) First-round draft picks
These are the top-ten point-scorers in franchise history. Figures are updated after each completed NHL regular season.
Note: Pos = Position; GP = Games Played; G = Goals; A = Assists; Pts = Points; P/G = Points per game; * = current Kings player

Franchise scoring leaders
Clarence S. Campbell Bowl
Art Ross Trophy
Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy
Calder Memorial Trophy
Hart Memorial Trophy
James Norris Memorial Trophy
King Clancy Memorial Trophy
Lady Byng Memorial Trophy
Lester B. Pearson Award
Lester Patrick Trophy
NHL Plus/Minus Award

Marcel Dionne: 1979–80
Wayne Gretzky: 1989–90, 1990–91, 1993–94
Butch Goring: 1977–78
Bob Bourne: 1987–88
Dave Taylor: 1990–91
Luc Robitaille: 1986–87
Wayne Gretzky: 1988–89
Rob Blake: 1997–98
Dave Taylor: 1990–91
Marcel Dionne: 1976–77
Butch Goring: 1977–78
Wayne Gretzky: 1990–91, 1991–92, 1993–94
Marcel Dionne: 1978–79, 1979–80
Terry Sawchuk: 1970–71
Bruce McNall: 1992–93
Wayne Gretzky: 1993–94
Marty McSorley: 1990–91 (shared with Theoren Fleury of the Calgary Flames) NHL awards and trophies

Most Goals in a season: Bernie Nicholls, 70 (1988–89)
Most Assists in a season: Wayne Gretzky, 122 (1990–91)
Most Points in a season: Wayne Gretzky, 168 (1988–89)
Most Points in a game: Bernie Nicholls, 8 (1988–89)
Most Penalty Minutes in a season: Marty McSorley, 399 (1992–93)
Most Points in a season, defenseman: Larry Murphy, 76 (1980–81)
Most Points in a season, rookie: Luc Robitaille, 84 (1986–87)
Most Wins in a season: Mario Lessard, 35 (1980–81)
Most Shutouts in a season: Rogie Vachon, 8 (1976–77) Franchise individual records

General managers

1967 NHL Expansion
List of NHL players
List of NHL seasons

Sunday, April 20, 2008

Richter scale
The Richter magnitude scale, or more correctly local magnitude ML scale, assigns a single number to quantify the amount of seismic energy released by an earthquake. It is a base-10 logarithmic scale obtained by calculating the logarithm of the combined horizontal amplitude of the largest displacement from zero on a seismometer output. Measurements have no limits and can be either positive or negative.

Richter magnitudes

Saturday, April 19, 2008

University of Reading
The University of Reading is a leading university in the English town of Reading, Berkshire.
Established in 1892, receiving its Royal Charter in 1926, the University has a long tradition of research, education and training at a local, national and international level. It was awarded the Queen's Anniversary Prize for Higher and Further Education in 1998, and again in 2005.
With around 3,000 international students from 120 countries, the university adds considerably to Reading's dynamic.

The University maintains over 1.6 km² (395 acres) of grounds, in three distinct campuses:
Whiteknights Campus, at 1.23 km² (304 acres), is the largest and includes Whiteknights Lake, conservation meadows and woodlands as well as most of the University's departments. The campus takes its name from the nickname of the 13th century knight, John De Erleigh IV or the 'White Knight', and was landscaped in the 18th century by Marquis of Blandford. The main University library, in the middle of the campus, holds nearly a million books and subscribes to around 4,000 periodicals.
The smaller London Road Campus is the original University site and is much closer to the town centre of Reading. Moreover, it plays host to the University graduation ceremonies at the Great Hall and is still home to the School of Continuing Education.
The Bulmershe Court Campus in Woodley is home to the Institute of Education and the School of Health and Social Care. It also has the largest hall of residence of the University.
The University also owns 8.5 km² (2100 acres) of farmland in the nearby villages of Arborfield, Sonning and Shinfield. These support a mixed farming system including dairy cows, ewes and beef animals, and host research centres of which the flagship is the Centre for Dairy Research.

Reading University Campuses
The university had a research income of almost £24.5 million in 2003-4, of which around 10 percent of annual research income derived from industrial or commercial sponsors. Over £2 million of funding has been secured in 2004 for business development and the commercial activities at the University.
In the Research Assessment Exercise in 2001, five departments were awarded the top rate of 5* - Archaeology, English, Italian, Meteorology and Psychology and fifteen departments were awarded the rating of 5. The Department of Meteorology was awarded a distinguished Queen's Anniversary Prize for Higher and Further Education in 2005 and is internationally renowned for its training and research in weather, climate and physical oceanography. Research centres include the Centre for Horticulture and Landscape, the BioCentre and the Centre for Advanced Microscopy.
Reading was the first university to win a Queen's Award for Export Achievement in 1989. Since then several initiatives to link the academic and commercial communities have followed. Reading Enterprise Hub, one of a network of SEEDA sponsored business incubators, opened on campus in 2003.

Research and Business Development
The major aim of the Centre for Advanced Computing and Emerging Technologies (ACET) is to demonstrate and promote new ways of doing multidisciplinary research based on the approach of "scientific discovery through advanced computing".

ACET Centre
In the 2004–05 academic year, the university had 4,024 staff and 15,326 students. The best known member of the university community is probably the cyberneticist Professor Kevin Warwick.
Reading University Students' Union is the affiliated student organisation which represents the students' interests. The Students' Union publishes Spark, a bi-weekly newspaper aimed at the student population of the University, which was weekly until October 2006 (it is now published fortnightly during term-time). The university also has a number of Junior Common Rooms that are nominally independent from the Students' Union and the University.
The Students' Union building on Whiteknights Campus contains an 1800 capacity venue, two bars, a number of retail outlets, and The HUB. The HUB is the Union's new volunteer, advice, student activity centre.

Student accommodation is provided in a number of halls of residence offering a good mix of partially-catered (under review) and self-catering accommodation, along with other self-catering accommodation. Most of the halls of residence lie close to the northern campus periphery and in residential areas close by.
Bulmershe Hall is located on the Bulmershe Campus. Bridges, Childs, Wessex, Whiteknights, and Windsor Halls are located on the Whiteknights Campus. St. George's, St. Patrick's, Sherfield, Sibly, Wantage, and Wells Halls are located in the residential areas surrounding Whiteknights, as is the self-catering accommodation of the Reading Student Village, Hillside Court and Martindale Court.
St. David's and Mansfield Halls latterly formed part of Witan Hall (see below) on the London Road Campus, and are not currently in use. The former St. Andrews Hall closed in 2001, and is now the home of the Museum of English Rural Life.
St. George's Hall and The Reading Student Village are leased back to the University from UJC. The cost of leasing back the Student Village to the University, according to the University accounts, was £1.5 million for 2003–04 and £1.3 million in 2002–03.

University Halls and accommodation
The University is successful at a number of sports, including rowing, tennis, hockey, and squash. In particular, they are highly successful at Rowing and the Reading University Boat Club has won many awards and competitions, its most recent BUSA placing being second on points at the 2007 BUSA Regatta. The club won the Visitors Challenge Cup for coxless fours at Henley Royal Regatta in 1986, and reached the final of the same event in 2007, where they were defeated by local rivals Leander Club. RUBC attracts many international oarsmen through its links with the GB Squad training facility at Caversham Lake and the GB Rowing World Class Scheme. Current and past students to acheive international representation and success include James Cracknell (Olympic Gold 2000, 2004), Gary Herbert (Olympic Gold 1992), Debbie Flood (Olympic Silver 2004, World Championship Gold 2006, 2007), Tash Page (Under 23 Gold 2005), Anna Bebington (World Championship Bronze 2007), Sam Townsend (GB Men's Quad 2007), Alex Gregory (GB Men's Quad 2007), Bill Lucas (Under 23 Bronze 2007) and Charles Cousins (Under 23 Bronze 2007). The Boat Club has been the highest ranked university club at the Fuller's Head of The River Fours for the last two years, with its Elite Men's boat finishing 4th Overall in 2006 and 3rd in 2007. In 2007, the Men's Association Football team became the highest placed in University history by winning the BUSA South East Division 1A Title and entering the BUSA Cup as one of the top 16 teams in the country. In 2007 the Men's Hockey 1st XI won the renowned British universities sports tournament, Dublin Fest.

The University of Reading has 60 societies open to its students
See full article for the full listing

Societies Full Article
Junction11 is the student radio station at The University of Reading.

Student Radio
Reading University maintains four museums and a botanical garden. The largest and best known of these is the Museum of English Rural Life, which has recently relocated from a location on Whiteknights Campus to a site nearer the town centre on the London Road Campus. The Ure Museum of Greek Archaeology, the Cole Museum of Zoology, the University of Reading Herbarium and the Harris Garden are all located on the Whiteknights Campus.

Museums and botanical gardens
Formerly associated with Reading University was Gyosei International College, a Japanese/British bi-cultural institution established on part of the University's original London Road Campus. Subsequently the college's links with the Japan-based Gyosei organisation were broken, and it became a charitably funded institution called Witan Hall. Recently this has in turn been purchased by the University of Reading, and has ceased student recruitment and will finally close in March 2008.
The University of Reading Law faculty is also associated with Taylors College in Malaysia. Taylors College conducts a 'twinning' program whereby students complete half of their degree in Malaysia and the other half at the University of Reading. Malaysian Law students in Reading generally achieve a second class upper average, and have set a high standard for Malaysian Law students.
Located on Reading University's Whiteknights campus is The College of Estate Management (CEM). The College was founded in 1919 and granted its Royal Charter in 1922. It was originally based in London but moved to Reading in 1969, leading to the foundation of the Faculty of Urban and Regional Studies (URS) at the University. The College provides education and training for students and members of the property and construction professions worldwide through distance learning. Courses are delivered by the provision of printed material sent to students by post and through web-based learning.
The Walker Institute, a pioneering centre for climate research, is based at the University of Reading. The Institute aims to exploit and integrate the climate expertise within the University and to address fundamental questions in understanding and forecasting climate variability and its impacts.

Reading University Governance
The university is nominally led by a Chancellor, who is the titular head of the university, and is normally a well known public figure. The day to day chief executive role is the responsibility of the Vice-Chancellor, a full time academic post. The senior management board of the university is headed by the Vice-Chancellor, assisted by a Deputy-Vice-Chancellor, three Pro-Vice-Chancellors, four Deans and five Heads of Directorate. It is responsible for the day-to-day management of the University and meets fortnightly throughout most of the year.

Officers of the University
Fictional alumni

Anton Apriantono - food technology scientist, serving as Indonesia's Minister of Agriculture since 2004
Edison James - Prime Minister of Dominica 1995-2000, Leader of the Opposition, 1990-1995 and 2000-2007.
Mike Penning - Conservative Member of Parliament for the Hemel Hempstead parliamentary constituency.
Rob Wilson - Conservative Member of Parliament for the Reading East parliamentary constituency
Sir Peter Crane - Director, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
E. A. Guggenheim - thermodynamicist and chemist
Dragan Marušič - Slovene mathematician
A. E. Wilder-Smith - creationist and chemist
Roger Wayman - chemist and publisher
Roger Stewart - Physicist
Dennis Dunn - Physicist
Arthur Brown - rock and roll singer
Jamie Cullum - jazz pianist and singer
Hilary James - singer, double bassist, guitarist, and mando-bassist
Simon Mayor - mandolinist, fiddle player, guitarist, and composer
Martin Noble - musician, Noble in the band British Sea Power.
Scott Wilkinson - musician, Yan in the band British Sea Power.
James Cracknell - rowing champion and double Olympic gold medallist.
Debbie Flood - rowing champion, quadruple sculls silver medallist at the 2004 Olympics.
Gary Herbert - rowing He won Olympic gold with Greg and Jonny Searl in the coxed pair in Barcelona 1992 Olympics.
Molly Hide, captained English women's cricket team for seventeen years
Julian Barratt - comedian from BBC's The Mighty Boosh
Keith Bosley - former BBC broadcaster and prizewinning poet and translator
Richard Holmes - noted military historian and television presenter
Kaddy Lee-Preston, TV weather presenter.
Julian Richards - archaeologist and broadcaster
Richard Sambrook - Director of the BBC World Service
Tomasz Schafernaker, TV weather presenter.
Jay Wynne, TV weather presenter.
Robert Gillmor - ornithologist, artist, illustrator, author and editor
Joan Smith - novelist and journalist
Richard Wilson - installation artist
Eve Balfour - farmer, educator, organic farming pioneer, and a founding figure in the organic movement
Azahari Husin - leading member of the Jemaah Islamiyah group, believed to have been involved in the 2005 Bali bombing
Robin Bextor - award-winning film and television director, and father of Sophie Ellis Bextor.
Clive Ponting - civil servant who faced trial for the leaking information on the sinking of the Belgrano, during the Falklands War.
Arnold Baffin - novelist character in The Black Prince by Iris Murdoch
Blaise Gavender - psychologist and former Reading psychology lecturer in The Sacred and Profane Love Machine by Iris Murdoch