Saturday, March 29, 2008

See text
Tulip (Tulipa) is a genus of about 100 species of flowering plants in the family Liliaceae. Its species are native to southern Europe, north Africa, and Asia from Anatolia and Iran in the east to northeast of China and Japan. The centre of diversity of the genus is in the Pamir and Hindu Kush mountains and the steppes of Kazakhstan.
They are perennial bulbous plants growing to 10–70 centimetres (4–27 in) tall, with a small number of strap-shaped, waxy-textured, usually glaucous green leaves and large flowers with six petals. The fruit is a dry capsule containing numerous flat disc-shaped seeds.

Origin of the Name
Tulips cannot be grown in the open in tropical climates, as they require a cold winter season to grow successfully. Manipulation of the tulip's growing temperature can, however, allow growers to "force" tulips to flower earlier than they normally would.
Some historical cultivars have had a striped, "feathered", "flamed", or variegated flower, as in the illustration below. While some modern varieties also display multicoloured patterns, this results from a natural change in the upper and lower layers of pigment in the tulip flower. Historical variegated varieties - such as those admired in the Dutch tulipomania gained their delicately feathered patterns from an infection with Tulip Breaking potyvirus. The mosaic virus is carried by green peach aphids, Myzus persicae, an insect common in European gardens of the seventeenth century, in which peach trees were often a prominent feature. While the virus produces fantastically beautiful flowers, it also causes the plant to sicken and die slowly. Today, it has been almost completely eradicated from growers' fields. The Black Tulip was the title of a historical romance by Alexandre Dumas, père (1850), in which the city of Haarlem has a reward outstanding for the first grower who can produce a truly black tulip. This fascination with growing a black tulip, a biologically impossible task, was historically accurate to the tulipomania in which the novel is set.
Tulips can be grown in either of two ways: through offsets or seed. Being genetic clones of the parent plant, offsets are the only way to enlarge the stock of a given tulip cultivar. By contrast, tulips do not come true from seed; the mixing of genes between parent tulips is very unpredictable. A tulip grown from seed will usually bear only a passing resemblance to the flower from which the seeds were taken. This makes for great potential in breeding new tulip flowers, and great variation in the wild. However, tulip growers must be patient: offsets often take at least a year to grow to sufficient size to flower, and a tulip grown from seed will not flower for anywhere between five and seven years after planting. "Broken" tulips (tulips affected by the mosaic virus) will occasionally revert to plain "breeder" colouring, but usually maintain their colourful, infected state when grown from offsets.

Selected species

Tulip Era in the Ottoman Empire
Tulip mania
Species Tulips

Friday, March 28, 2008

Bight of Benin
The Bight of Benin is a bight (a type of bay) on the western African coast that extends eastward for about 400 miles (640 km) from Cape St. Paul to the Nun outlet of the Niger River. To the east it is continued by the Bight of Bonny (formerly Bight of Biafra). The bight is part of the Gulf of Guinea.
On December 25, 2003, UTA Flight 141 crashed in the Bight.

Thursday, March 27, 2008

Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry County, Ontario
Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry United Counties is a county and census division in Ontario, Canada. The county seat is Cornwall.
The county borders with Quebec to the east and New York State to the south.

Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry County, Ontario Municipalities

City of Cornwall
Township of North Dundas
Township of North Glengarry
Township of North Stormont
Township of South Dundas
Township of South Glengarry
Township of South Stormont

Wednesday, March 26, 2008

Milton Arthur Paul Caniff (February 28, 1907-May 3, 1988) was an American cartoonist famous for the Terry and the Pirates and Steve Canyon comic strips.

Milton CaniffMilton Caniff Early life
In 1932, Caniff moved to New York City to accept an artist position in the Features Service of the Associated Press. He did general assignment art for several months, then inherited a panel cartoon called Mister Gilfeather in September 1932 when Al Capp left the feature. Caniff continued Gilfeather until the spring of 1933, when it was retired in favor of a generic comedy in a panel cartoon called The Gay Thirties, which he produced until he left AP in the fall of 1934. In July 1933, Caniff began an adventure fantasy strip, Dickie Dare, influenced by series such as Flash Gordon and Brick Bradford. At the time, Caniff was one of only two or three syndicated cartoonists who owned their creations, and he attracted considerable publicity as a result of this circumstance.

Recognition and awards
Along with Hal Foster and Alex Raymond, Caniff's style would have a tremendous influence on the artists who drew American comic books in the first half of the 20th century. Evidence of his influence can be clearly seen in the work of comic book artists such as Jack Kirby, Frank Robbins, Lee Elias, Bob Kane, Mike Sekowsky, Dick Dillin,John Romita,Sr. and Johnny Craig to name just a mere handful.

Tuesday, March 25, 2008

Ultraviolet (UV) light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than soft X-rays. It is so named because the spectrum consists of electromagnetic waves with frequencies higher than those that humans identify as the color violet (purple).
UV light is typically found as part of the radiation received by the Earth from the Sun. Most humans are aware of the effects of UV through the painful condition of sunburn. The UV spectrum has many other effects, including both beneficial and damaging changes to human health.

Origin of term
The part of the electromagnetic spectrum which ultraviolet light covers can be further subdivided in several different overlapping ways:
In photolithography, in laser technology, etc., the term deep ultraviolet or DUV refers to wavelengths below 300 nm. "Vacuum UV" is so named because it is absorbed strongly by air and is used in vacuums.
See 1 E-7 m for a list of objects of comparable sizes.


Main article: Black light Black light
The Sun emits ultraviolet radiation in the UVA, UVB, and UVC bands, but because of absorption in the atmosphere's ozone layer, 99% of the ultraviolet radiation that reaches the Earth's surface is UVA. (Some of the UVB and UVC light is responsible for the generation of the ozone layer.)
Ordinary glass is partially transparent to UVA but is opaque to shorter wavelengths while Silica or quartz glass, depending on quality, can be transparent even to vacuum UV wavelengths. Ordinary window glass passes about 90% of the light above 350 nm, but blocks over 90% of the light below 300 nm. spectral line at 30.4nm. XUV is strongly absorbed by most known materials, but it is possible to synthesize multilayer optics that reflect up to about 50% of XUV radiation at normal incidence. This technology has been used to make telescopes for solar imaging; it was pioneered by the NIXT and MSSTA sounding rockets in the 1990s; (current examples are SOHO/EIT and TRACE) and for nanolithography (printing of traces and devices on microchips).

Natural sources of UV

Human Health Related Effects of UV Radiation
A positive effect of UVB exposure is that it induces the production of vitamin D in the skin. It has been estimated that tens of thousands of premature deaths occur in the United States annually from a range of cancers due to vitamin D deficiency.

Beneficial Effects of UV radiation
In humans, prolonged exposure to solar UV radiation may result in acute and chronic health effects on the skin, eye, and immune system.
UVC rays are the highest energy, most dangerous type of ultraviolet light. Little attention has been given to UVC rays in the past since they are filtered out by the atmosphere. However, their use in equipment such as pond sterilization units may pose an exposure risk, if the lamp is switched on outside of its enclosed pond sterilization unit.

Harmful Effects of UV Radiation
UVA, UVB and UVC can all damage collagen fibers and thereby accelerate aging of the skin. Both UVA and UVB destroy vitamin A in skin which may cause further damage. In general, UVA is the least harmful, but can contribute to the aging of skin, DNA damage and possibly skin cancer. It penetrates deeply and does not cause sunburn. Because it does not cause reddening of the skin (erythema) it cannot be measured in the SPF testing. There is no good clinical measurement of the blocking of UVA radiation, but it is important that sunscreen block both UVA and UVB.
UVB light can cause skin cancer. The radiation excites DNA molecules in skin cells, causing covalent bonds to form between adjacent thymine bases, producing thymidine dimers. Thymidine dimers do not base pair normally, which can cause distortion of the DNA helix, stalled replication, gaps, and misincorporation. These can lead to mutations, which can result in cancerous growths. The mutagenicity of UV radiation can be easily observed in bacteria cultures. This cancer connection is one reason for concern about ozone depletion and the ozone hole. UVB causes some damage to collagen but at a very much slower rate than UVA.
As a defense against UV radiation, the body tans when exposed to moderate (depending on skin type) levels of radiation and UVA in particular triggers the release of the brown pigment melanin from melanocytes; while UVB mostly triggers de novo production. This tan helps to block UV penetration and prevent damage to the vulnerable skin tissues deeper down.
Suntan lotion, often referred to as "sun block" or "sunscreen", partly blocks UV and is widely available. Most of these products contain an SPF rating that describes the amount of protection given. This protection factor, however, applies only to UVB rays responsible for sunburn and not to UVA rays that penetrate more deeply into the skin and may also be responsible for causing cancer and wrinkles. Some sunscreen lotion now includes compounds such as titanium dioxide which helps protect against UVA rays. Other UVA blocking compounds found in sunscreen include zinc oxide and avobenzone. Cantaloupe extract, rich in the compound superoxide dismutase (SOD), can be bound with gliadin to form glisodin, an orally-effective protectant against UVB radiation. There are also naturally occurring compounds found in rainforest plants that have been known to protect the skin from UV radiation damage, such as the fern Phlebodium aureum.
What to look for in sunscreen:
UVB protection: Padimate O, Homosalate, Octisalate (octyl salicylate), Octinoxate (octyl methoxycinnamate) UVA protection: Avobenzone UVA/UVB protection: Octocrylene, titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, Mexoryl (ecamsule)
Another means to block UV is sun protective clothing. This is clothing that has a "UPF rating" that describes the protection given against both UVA and UVB.

High intensities of UVB light are hazardous to the eyes, and exposure can cause welder's flash (photokeratitis or arc eye) and may lead to cataracts, pterygium , and pinguecula formation.
Protective eyewear is beneficial to those who are working with or those who might be exposed to ultraviolet radiation, particularly short wave UV. Given that light may reach the eye from the sides, full coverage eye protection is usually warranted if there is an increased risk of exposure, as in high altitude mountaineering. Mountaineers are exposed to higher than ordinary levels of UV radiation, both because there is less atmospheric filtering and because of reflection from snow and ice.
Ordinary, untreated eyeglasses give some protection. Most plastic lenses give more protection than glass lenses, because, as noted above, glass is transparent to UVA and the common acrylic plastic used for lenses is less so. Some plastic lens materials, such as polycarbonate, inherently block most UV. There are protective treatments available for eyeglass lenses that need it which will give better protection. But even a treatment that completely blocks UV will not protect the eye from light that arrives around the lens.

Ultraviolet radiation Eye
Many polymers used in consumer products are degraded by UV light, and need addition of UV stabilizers to inhibit attack. Products include thermoplastics, such as polypropylene and polyethylene as well as speciality fibres like aramids. UV absorption leads to chain degradation and loss of strength. In addition, many pigments and dyes absorb UV and change colour, so paintings and textiles may need extra protection both from sunlight and fluorescent lamps.

Other Effects of UV Radiation
Ultraviolet Light Absorbers (UVAs) are molecules used in organic materials (polymers, paints, etc.) to absorb UV light in order to reduce the degradation (photo-oxidation) of a material. A number of different UVAs exist with different absorption properties. UVAs can disappear over time, so monitoring of UVA levels in weathered materials is necessary.
In sunscreen, ingredients which absorb UVA/UVB rays, such as avobenzone and octyl methoxycinnamate, are known as absorbers. They are contrasted with physical "blockers" of UV radiation such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide. (See sunscreen for a more complete list.)

Blockers and absorbers

Applications of UV
A black light is a lamp that emits long wave UV radiation and very little visible light. Fluorescent black lights are typically made in the same fashion as normal fluorescent lights except that only one phosphor is used and the normally clear glass envelope of the bulb is replaced by a deep bluish purple glass called Wood's glass.
To help thwart counterfeiters, sensitive documents (e.g. credit cards, driver's licenses, passports) may also include a UV watermark that can only be seen when viewed under a UV-emitting light. Passports issued by most countries usually contain UV sensitive inks and security threads. Visa stamps and stickers on passports of visitors contain large and detailed seals invisible to the naked eye under normal lights, but strongly visible under UV illumination. Passports issued by many nations have UV sensitive watermarks on all pages of the passport. Currencies of various countries' banknotes have an image, as well as many multicolored fibers, that are visible only under ultraviolet light.

Black lights
Fluorescent lamps produce UV radiation by ionising low-pressure mercury vapour. A phosphorescent coating on the inside of the tubes absorbs the UV and converts it to visible light.
The main mercury emission wavelength is in the UVC range. Unshielded exposure of the skin or eyes to mercury arc lamps that do not have a conversion phosphor is quite dangerous.
The light from a mercury lamp is predominantly at discrete wavelengths. Other practical UV sources with more continuous emission spectra include xenon arc lamps (commonly used as sunlight simulators), deuterium arc lamps, mercury-xenon arc lamps, metal-halide arc lamps, and tungsten-halogen incandescent lamps.

Fluorescent lamps
In astronomy, very hot objects preferentially emit UV radiation (see Wien's law). Because the ozone layer blocks many UV frequencies from reaching telescopes on the surface of the Earth, most UV observations are made from space. (See UV astronomy, space observatory.)

Ultraviolet traps are used to eliminate various small flying insects. They are attracted to the UV light, and are killed using an electric shock, or trapped once they come into contact with the device.

Pest control
UV/VIS spectroscopy is widely used as a technique in chemistry, to analyze chemical structure, most notably conjugated systems. UV radiation is often used in visible spectrophotometry to determine the existence of fluorescence in a given sample.

Ultraviolet lamps are also used in analyzing minerals, gems, and in other detective work including authentication of various collectibles. Materials may look the same under visible light, but fluoresce to different degrees under ultraviolet light; or may fluoresce differently under short wave ultraviolet versus long wave ultraviolet.

Analyzing minerals
UV fluorescent dyes are used in many applications (for example, biochemistry and forensics). The Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) is often used in genetics as a marker. Many substances, such as proteins, have significant light absorption bands in the ultraviolet that are of use and interest in biochemistry and related fields. UV-capable spectrophotometers are common in such laboratories.

Chemical markers
Exposure to UVA light while the skin is hyper-photosensitive by taking psoralens is an effective treatment for psoriasis called PUVA. Due to psoralens potentially causing damage to the liver, PUVA may only be used a limited number of times over a patient's lifetime.

WikiProject Health or the Health Portal may be able to help recruit one. If a more appropriate WikiProject or portal exists, please adjust this template accordingly. Exposure to UVB light, particularly the 310nm narrowband UVB range, is an effective long-term treatment for many skin conditions like psoriasis, vitiligo, eczema, and many others. UVB phototherapy does not require additional medications or topical preparations for the therapeutic benefit; only the light exposure is needed. However, phototherapy can be effective when used in conjunction with certain topical treatments such as anthralin, coal tar, and Vitamin A and D derivatives, or systemic treatments such as methotrexate and soriatane.
Typical treatment regimes involve short exposure to UVB rays 3 to 5 times a week at a hospital or clinic, and for the best results, up to 30 or more sessions may be required.
Side effects may include itching and redness of the skin due to UVB exposure, and possibly sunburn, if patients do not minimize exposure to natural UV rays during treatment days.

Ultraviolet radiation is used for very fine resolution photolithography, a procedure where a chemical known as a photoresist is exposed to UV radiation which has passed through a mask. The light allows chemical reactions to take place in the photoresist, and after development (a step that either removes the exposed or unexposed photoresist), a geometric pattern which is determined by the mask remains on the sample. Further steps may then be taken to "etch" away parts of the sample with no photoresist remaining.
UV radiation is used extensively in the electronics industry because photolithography is used in the manufacture of semiconductors, integrated circuit components and printed circuit boards.

A new application of UV is to detect corona discharge (often simply called "corona") on electrical apparatus. Degradation of insulation of electrical apparatus or pollution causes corona, wherein a strong electric field ionizes the air and excites nitrogen molecules, causing the emission of ultraviolet radiation. The corona degrades the insulation level of the apparatus. Corona produces ozone and to a lesser extent nitrogen oxide which may subsequently react with water in the air to form nitrous acid and nitric acid vapour in the surrounding air.

Checking electrical insulation

Main article: Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation Sterilization
UV radiation can be an effective viricide and bactericide. Disinfection using UV radiation is more commonly used in wastewater treatment applications but is finding increased usage in drinking water treatment. A process named SODIS [1] has been extensively researched in Switzerland and has proven ideal to treat small quantities of water. Contaminated water is poured into transparent plastic bottles and exposed to full sunlight for six hours. The sunlight treats the contaminated water through two synergetic mechanisms: Radiation in the spectrum of UV-A (wavelength 320-400nm) and increased water temperature. If the water temperatures rises above 50°C, the disinfection process is three times faster. It used to be thought that UV disinfection was more effective for bacteria and viruses, which have more exposed genetic material, than for larger pathogens which have outer coatings or that form cyst states (e.g., Giardia) that shield their DNA from the UV light. However, it was recently discovered that ultraviolet radiation can be somewhat effective for treating the microorganism Cryptosporidium. The findings resulted in two US patents and the use of UV radiation as a viable method to treat drinking water. Giardia in turn has been shown to be very susceptible to UV-C when the tests were based on infectivity rather than excystation. It has been found that protists are able to survive high UV-C doses but are sterilized at low doses.

Disinfecting drinking water
As consumer demand for fresh and "fresh like" food products increases, the demand for nonthermal methods of food processing is likewise on the rise. In addition, public awareness regarding the dangers of food poisoning is also raising demand for improved food processing methods. Ultraviolet radiation is used in several food processes to remove unwanted microorganisms. UV light can be used to pasteurize fruit juices by flowing the juice over a high intensity ultraviolet light source. The effectiveness of such a process depends on the UV absorbance of the juice (see Beer's law).

Food processing
Ultraviolet detectors generally use either a solid-state device, such as one based on silicon carbide or aluminium nitride, or a gas-filled tube as the sensing element. UV detectors which are sensitive to UV light in any part of the spectrum respond to irradiation by sunlight and artificial light. A burning hydrogen flame, for instance, radiates strongly in the 185 to 260 nanometer range and only very weakly in the IR region, while a coal fire emits very weakly in the UV band yet very strongly at IR wavelengths; thus a fire detector which operates using both UV and IR detectors is more reliable than one with a UV detector alone. Virtually all fires emit some radiation in the UVB band, while the Sun's radiation at this band is absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere. The result is that the UV detector is "solar blind", meaning it will not cause an alarm in response to radiation from the Sun, so it can easily be used both indoors and outdoors.
UV detectors are sensitive to most fires, including hydrocarbons, metals, sulfur, hydrogen, hydrazine, and ammonia. Arc welding, electrical arcs, lightning, X-rays used in nondestructive metal testing equipment (though this is highly unlikely), and radioactive materials can produce levels that will activate a UV detection system. The presence of UV-absorbing gases and vapors will attenuate the UV radiation from a fire, adversely affecting the ability of the detector to detect flames. Likewise, the presence of an oil mist in the air or an oil film on the detector window will have the same effect.

Fire detection
Certain inks, coatings and adhesives are formulated with photoinitiators and resins. When exposed to the correct energy and irradiance in the required band of UV light, polymerization occurs, and so the adhesives harden or cure. Usually, this reaction is very quick, a matter of a few seconds. Applications include glass and plastic bonding, optical fiber coatings, the coating of flooring, UV Coating and paper finishes in offset printing, and dental fillings.
An industry has developed around the manufacture of UV lamps sourced for UV curing applictions. Fast processes such as flexo or offset printing require high intensity light focussed via reflectors onto a moving substrate and medium and high pressure Hg (mercury) or Fe (iron) based bulbs are used which can be energised with electric arc or microwaves. Lower power fluorescent lamps can be used for static applications and in some cases, small high pressure lamps can have light focussed and transmitted to the work area via liquid filled or fibre optic light guides.
Radtech is a trade association dedicated to the promotion of this technology.

Curing of inks, adhesives, varnishes and coatings
UV lights have been installed in some parts of the world in public restrooms, and on public transport, for the purpose of deterring substance abuse. The blue color of these lights, combined with the fluorescence of the skin, make it harder for intravenous drug users to find a vein. The efficacy of these lights for that purpose has been questioned, with some suggesting that drug users simply find a vein outside the public restroom and mark the spot with a marker for accessibility when inside the restroom. There is currently no published evidence supporting the idea of a deterrent effect.

Deterring substance abuse in public places
Sun tanning describes a darkening of the skin (especially of fair-skinned individuals) in a natural physiological response stimulated by exposure to ultraviolet radiation from sunshine (or a sunbed). With excess exposure to the sun, a suntanned area can also develop sunburn.

Sun Tanning
Some EPROM (electronically programmable read-only memory) modules are erased by exposure to UV radiation. These modules often have a transparent glass (quartz) window on the top of the chip that allows the UV radiation in. These have been largely superseded by EEPROM and flash memory chips in most devices.

Erasing EPROM modules
UV radiation is useful in preparing low surface energy polymers for adhesives. Polymers exposed to UV light will oxidize thus raising the surface energy of the polymer. Once the surface energy of the polymer has been raised, the bond between the adhesive and the polymer will not be smaller.

Preparing low surface energy polymers
Using multi-spectral imaging it is possible to read illegible papyruses, such as the burned papyruses of the Villa of the Papyri or of Oxyrhynchus. The technique involves taking pictures of the illegible papyruses using different filters in the infrared or ultraviolet range, finely tuned to capture certain wavelengths of light. Thus, the optimum spectral portion can be found for distinguishing ink from paper on the papyrus surface.

Reading completely illegible papyruses
Evolution of early reproductive proteins and enzymes is attributed in modern models of evolutionary theory to ultraviolet light. Ultraviolet light causes thymine base pairs next to each other in genetic sequences to bond together into thymine dimers, a disruption in the strand which reproductive enzymes cannot copy (see picture above). This leads to frameshifting during genetic replication and protein synthesis, usually killing the organism. As early prokaryotes began to approach the surface of the ancient oceans, before the protective ozone layer had formed, blocking out most wavelengths of UV light, they almost invariably died out. The few that survived had developed enzymes which verified the genetic material and broke up thymine dimer bonds, known as excision repair enzymes. Many enzymes and proteins involved in modern mitosis and meiosis are extremely similar to excision repair enzymes, and are believed to be evolved modifications of the enzymes originally used to overcome UV light.

See also

Hu, S; Ma, F & Collado-Mesa, F et al. (2004), "UV radiation, latitude, and melanoma in US Hispanics and blacks", Arch. Dermatol. 140 (7): 819-824, DOI:10.1001/archderm.140.7.819, <>
Hockberger, Philip E., "A History of Ultraviolet Photobiology for Humans, Animals and Microorganisms", Photochemisty and Photobiology 76 (6): 561-569, doi:10.1562/0031-8655(2002)076<0561:AHOUPF>2.0.CO;2, <>
Allen, Jeannie (2001-09-06), Ultraviolet Radiation: How it Affects Life on Earth, Earth Observatory, NASA, USA, <>

Monday, March 24, 2008

Eric Moon
Eric Edward Moon (born 1923) is a librarian and editor who had a shaping influence on American librarianship in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, as editor of Library Journal, as President of the American Library Association, and as chief editor at Scarecrow Press.
Eric Moon was born on March 6, 1923 in Yeovil, England, and spent most of his youth in Southampton. He worked at Southampton Public Library from 1938 until he began his military service in 1941. Following his discharge in 1946 he pursued his professional education as a librarian, at the then Loughborough College. He began his professional career running small libraries in Hertfordshire, at Finchley, at Brentford and Chiswick, and then at Kensington, experimenting with novel ideas in library service through this period. Frustrated with the conservatism of British librarianship, in 1958 he took a job as head of public libraries in Newfoundland, Canada, where he worked for one year.
In 1959 Moon was hired as editor of Library Journal, based in New York City. The leadership of the R.R. Bowker company, Library Journal's publisher, saw in Moon a personality they hoped would revive the struggling magazine and take it in new directions. In his nine years as editor, Moon changed Library Journal substantially, most noticeably by engaging the magazine in controversial issues and taking sides in the heated debates that characterized American librarianship during the period. Under Moon's editorship, Library Journal became known for its liberal, activist perspectives on the professional issues of the day. This change in direction was first defined by Moon's choice in 1960 to address racial segregation in Southern libraries, where African American librarians were not allowed to work in "white" libraries or participate in the library associations of Southern states. The debate over racially segregated libraries divided the profession at that time, and Moon's activist position placed his Library Journal in the camp of those in the profession who advocated significant change. This transformation made Library Journal popular reading for American librarians; by the mid-1960s the magazine was financially thriving. In 1965 Eric Moon was appointed to the Bowker Board of Directors.
In that year he also became a citizen of the United States.
Moon quit his post as editor of Library Journal in 1968, shortly after Bowker was acquired by the Xerox Corporation. In 1969 he was hired as the chief editor of Scarecrow Press, a small publisher with ties to the library community that had recently been purchased by the Grolier Educational Corporation (now a subsidiary of Scholastic, Inc.), taking over for founder Ralph Shaw. At Scarecrow, Moon rapidly increased the number of titles published per year, while introducing higher standards for editorial accuracy. (Scarecrow had been notorious for typographical errors in its books.) He also broadened the scope of the press beyond its traditional focus on library science topics. Moon retired from Scarecrow Press in 1978.
Moon ran for the office of Vice-President/President-Elect of the American Library Association as a petition candidate for the 1976-1977 year, and was elected. The major concern of his presidential year was to influence the development of a national information policy. Events in the profession during his term made it difficult to arouse strong interest in this goal within the association, whose leaders mostly lacked prior experience in the policy arena to begin with. Following his presidential year, Moon continued to influence ALA politics as a member of its governing Council into the mid-1990s.
Eric Moon is presently retired and living in Sarasota, Florida with his wife Ilse.

Sunday, March 23, 2008

Taproot is a four-piece rock music group from Ann Arbor, Michigan that has toured with bands such as KoЯn, Deftones, Staind, P.O.D., Disturbed, and Linkin Park.

Taproot (band) History
Back in the mid 90's a band called Cymonic Drive featured Dan now in the band Madhops on bass and Dennis AKA D-hauz now ex-20 Dead Flower Children on vocals. While another band called Skumbag featured Steve now of Taproot on drums and Mike now of Taproot on guitar, one day these bands played a gig together and both took interest in each others band. After a few conversations the 4 members dissolved their current bands and got together to form the first incarnation of a band we now know as Taproot the line-up then featured D-hauz on vocals, Mike on guitar, Dan on bass and Steve on drums. The band's first song was "Coma 99" which later went on to became a 20 Dead Flower Children song in a different version. Things went well at the start but the band's line-up only lasted about 3-4 months when it was cut short by D-hauz leaving the band to join 20 Dead Flower Children after their original singer left the band. With no singer to front the band Dan left shortly after and formed Madhops. Taproot's future wasn't looking to bright until Steve stepped out from behind the drumkit and attempted the vocal duties, it turned out that Steve could sing quite well which brought Dan back into the fold to lay down the bass on some demo tracks one of which included the song from Taproot's debut album ...Something More Than Nothing "Negative Rein4sment" in which Dan can also be heard busting a freestyle on. The new band configuration worked out well but Dan was well into Madhops and returned back to them which left Steve and Mike to search out some new musicians to take their place, they first found Phil their current bass player and then J-rod their current drummer which worked well and is now their current line-up.
In 1998, the band sent their demo to Limp Bizkit frontman Fred Durst. Impressed with their material, he offered to get them a recording contract through Interscope Records. However, after extended negotiations, Taproot looked elsewhere, where they finally landed a lucrative record deal with Atlantic Records. Feeling betrayed, Durst heavily cursed the band on vocalist Stephen Richards' answering machine. During this time period, Taproot independently released three discs in ...Something More Than Nothing (1998), Mentobe (1998) and Upon Us (1999).

The beginnings (1997-1999)
The band released their debut album Gift on June 27, 2000. With the album's lead single, "Again & Again", gaining heavy exposure through MTV2, the band's mainstream rise gained momentum.
With the help of Ozzy Osbourne's son Jack, Taproot landed a spot on the second stage of the 2000 and 2001 Ozzfest Tour.
After spending seven months in Los Angeles, the band released their second album Welcome on October 15, 2002. Considered to be a more melodic effort, the album debuted at #17 on the Billboard 200, selling over 51,000 copies in its first week of release. Much of this was due to the success of the the album's first single, "Poem", which shot to #5 on the Mainstream Rock charts. The album's second single, "Mine", followed with more moderate success. Welcome is Taproot's most successful album to-date, achieving near gold status, with approximately 475,000+ copies sold.
After touring across the country on Disturbed's Music as a Weapon Tour, as well as a European tour, the band took a long two year break.

Gift/Welcome (2000-2004)
Returning from exile, the band released their third major album Blue-Sky Research on August 16, 2005. Billy Corgan (Smashing Pumpkins frontman) assisted in song-writing on the album, which was produced by Toby Wright. It debuted at #33 on the Billboard 200, with approximately 28,000 first week sales. On June 13, 2006, drummer Jarrod Montague, via Taproot's MySpace blog, confirmed the news.

Blue-Sky Research (2005-2006)
On March 5, 2007, the band confirmed that they were in the process of recording their new album with producer Tim Patalan. A summer (July-September) release is expected.
According to Philip Lipscomb's (Bassist) MySpace site, drums and bass are now officially recorded, while guitar tracks still needs to be recorded. As for vocals, Stephen Richards (Vocalist) still has a lot of work to do.
On August 7, 2007 it was posted on Taproot's Myspace via a comment posted by Stand Alone would be touring with them once Stand Alone had finished their current tour.

Present news (2007-present)

Stephen Richards – Vocals, Guitar
Mike DeWolf – Guitar
Phil Lipscomb – Bass
Jarrod Montague - Drums Members




The band members birth dates are: Stephen Richards (Oct 17, 1977), Mike DeWolf (Jul 5, 1976), Phil Lipscomb (Sep 2, 1976), Jarrod Montague (Jan 28, 1976).
Bassist Phil Lipscomb is part of a side project called The Toques. They have released the song "Breakdown" which was featured on the soundtrack to the film Stick It.
The song "Poem" was featured on the MVP Baseball 2003 soundtrack, as well as the soundtrack for True Crime: Streets of L.A.
The song "Calling" was used as the official theme song for WWE Unforgiven 2005.
The band came out on stage to I AM X's introduction to the song "Kiss and Swallow" during part of their spring 2006 tour.
The band's manager Mark Wakefield is the former singer of Xero, the band that eventually became Linkin Park.

Saturday, March 22, 2008

The term cockney refers to working-class inhabitants of London, particularly east London, and the slang used by these people. It is also often used in reference to the "cockney accent", the accent common among London's working-class.
A "true" cockney is often said to be someone born within earshot of the Bow Bells, i.e. the bells of St Mary-le-Bow church in Cheapside in the City of London (which is not itself in the East End). However, the bells were silent from the outbreak of World War II until 1961.

The region in which "Cockneys" reside has changed over time, and is no longer the whole of London. As mentioned in the introduction, the traditional definition is that in order to be a Cockney, one must have been born within earshot of the Bow Bells. However, the church of St Mary-le-Bow was destroyed in the Great Fire of London and rebuilt by Sir Christopher Wren. After the bells were destroyed again in 1941 in The Blitz of World War II, and before they were replaced in 1961, there was a period when by this definition no 'Bow-bell' Cockneys could be born. The use of such a literal definition produces other problems, since traffic noise and the current lack of a hospital with a maternity ward in earshot of the church , and it was estimated that the bells would have been heard six miles to the east, five miles to the north, three miles to the south, and four miles to the west.
Thus while all East Enders are Cockneys, not all Cockneys are East Enders. The traditional core neighbourhoods of the East End are Bethnal Green, Whitechapel, Spitalfields, Stepney, Wapping, Limehouse, Poplar, Millwall, Hackney, Shoreditch, Bow and Mile End. The area gradually expanded as more land was built upon.
Migration of Cockneys has also led to migration of the dialect. As Chatham Dockyard expanded during the 18th Century, large numbers of workers were relocated from the dockland areas of London, bringing with them a "Cockney" accent and vocabulary. Within a short period this famously distinguished Chatham from the neighbouring areas, including the City of Rochester, which had the traditional Kentish accent. In Essex, towns that mostly grew up from post-war migration out of London (e.g. Basildon, Harlow and West Horndon) often have a strong Cockney influence on local speech.

Cockney area
Cockney speakers have a distinctive accent and dialect, and frequently use Cockney rhyming slang. The Survey of English Dialects took a recording from a long-time resident of Hackney.[8]
John Camden Hotten, in his Slang Dictionary of 1859 makes reference to "their use of a peculiar slang language" when describing the costermongers of London's East End. In terms of other slang, there are also several borrowings from Yiddish, including kosher (originally Hebrew, via Yiddish, meaning legitimate) and shtumm (/ʃtʊm/ originally German, via Yiddish, meaning quiet Cockney speech

Albert and Harold Steptoe from comedy series Steptoe and Son
The children in the movie Bedknobs and Broomsticks
Colleen the London collie dog on the cartoon Road Rovers
Miss Shirley Brahms Wendy Richard from the comedy series Are You Being Served?
Rudyard Kipling's "The Widow at Windsor"
Jerry Cruncher in Charles Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities
Eliza Doolittle in George Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion (see also My Fair Lady)
The character Toad from Marvel Comics
Gavroche Thenardier in English productions of the musical of Les Miserables (as an equivalent of Paris criminal Argot)
Fevvers in Angela Carter's novel Nights at the Circus
William Somerset Maugham's novel Liza of Lambeth
Me and My Girl (musical)
EastEnders soap opera
Wayne Winston Norris, the chirpy cockney carpenter in Auf Wiedersehen, Pet
Private Joe Walker, infamous cockney spiv fron Dads Army
Guy Ritchie films, such as Snatch and Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels
Eliza Pinchley in Family Guy's spoof of My Fair Lady
Tobias Ragg and the Beggar Woman in Stephen Sondheim's Sweeney Todd
Basher Tarr in the movie Ocean's Eleven
Danny Blue in the BBC TV series Hustle
Wilson in the movie The Limey
In the children's television series TUGS, Ten Cents speaks with a Cockney accent.
In the video game Fable, many of the townsfolk and characters speak with a Cockney accent.
Most characters in the musical and movie-musical Oliver!
The characters in the Thames Television show Minder made liberal use of Cockney slang, and the show brought terms such as porkies into common use
The Hitcher and his accomplices in The Mighty Boosh
Sid, the caretaker in the hit British comedy series Mind Your Language
Rose Tyler, played by Billie Piper, in Doctor Who
Mungojerrie and Rumpleteazer in T. S. Eliot's Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats
Most characters in the movie Green Street Hooligans
Lucy in Jekyll and Hyde the Musical
Most characters in the movie To Sir, with Love
Most characters in Harold Pinter's early plays
Most characters in the plays and fiction of Philip Ridley
Stan Shunpike in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban
Yangus in Dragon Quest VIII
The Orks in the Warhammer 40,000 universe (and in the Dawn of War, RTS game series)
The Landlady and her Boarders in Lucky Stiff, a musical comedy
Death of Inhaling Hatmaking Chemicals in Irregular Webcomic!
Corporal Peter Newkirk (played by Richard Dawson) in Hogan's Heroes
Sadie in National Lampoon's Van Wilder: The Rise of Taj
Roman in Armed and Dangerous
Pim Scutney and Rog Gobshire of Team Britain in the movie Beerfest
Almost all characters in Nick Love's films The Football Factory and The Business
Mordor Orcs in Peter Jackson's film trilogy The Lord of the Rings
Sam, Mary, and other minor characters in John Fowles' The French Lieutenant's Woman
Pinky, in "Pinky and the Brain"
Lee-Hom Wang's new song, "Cockney Girl"
Alfred Borden in The Prestige (film) Drama, fiction and poetry

The London Cockneys were a baseball team who played in the International League from London, Ontario but are now defunct.
The Cockney Rejects
Alfie Bass (actor, born in Bethnal Green)
Marc Bolan (singer, musician, born in Hackney)
Bernard Bresslaw (actor, born in Stepney)
Eric Bristow (darts player, born in Hackney)
Max Bygraves (Singer, songwriter and comedian, born in Rotherhithe)
Michael Caine (Hollywood Film Star, born in Rotherhithe)
George Carey (archbishop, born in Bow)
Charlie Chaplin (Hollywood Film Star, born in Walworth)
Chas and Dave
Jack Cohen (founder of Tesco supermarket chain, born in Whitechapel)
Windsor Davies (actor, born in Canning Town)
Roger Delgado, (actor, born in Whitechapel)
Craig Fairbrass (actor, born in Stepney)
Bud Flanagan, (actor, comedian, and singer, born in Whitechapel)
Samantha Fox (model/singer, born in Mile End) Note that she often pronounces her first name as "Samanfer", adding an "r"
Gary Holton (actor, musician, born in Hackney)
Kenny Jones (musician, born in Bow)
Kray twins, Ronald and Reginald (gangsters, born in Hoxton)
Ronnie Lane (musician, born in Bow)
Angela Lansbury (actress, born in Poplar)
Vera Lynn (singer, born in East Ham)
Steve Marriott (singer, musician, born in Bow)
Lenny McLean (bare knuckle/unlicensed boxer/actor, born in Hoxton). Also known as "The Guv'nor". Played 'Barry the Baptist' in Lock Stock and Two Smoking Barrels.
Gary Oldman (actor, director born in New Cross)
Mike Reid (actor/comedian, born in Hackney)
Philip Ridley (artist, writer, film maker, photographer born in Bethnal Green)
Roy Shaw (bare knuckle/unlicensed boxer, born in Stepney)
Terence Stamp (actor, born in Stepney)
Tommy Steele (singer, musician and actor, born in Bermondsey)
Sir Alan Sugar (Businessman, born in Hackney)
Barbara Windsor (actress, born in Shoreditch)
Ray Winstone (actor, born in Hackney Cockney See also

Friday, March 21, 2008

List of United States Senators from South Dakota
The following is a list of United States Senators from South Dakota.
(South Dakota was admitted to the Union on November 2, 1889.)
Class 2
Class 3

Thursday, March 20, 2008

UCLA School of Medicine or David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA is an accredited allopathic medical school located in Los Angeles, California, United States. The school was named in honor of media mogul David Geffen who donated $200 million in unrestricted funds to the school in 2001.

David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLADavid Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA History
UC Board of Regents voted to establish a medical school affiliated with UCLA in 1945. In 1947, Stafford L. Warren was appointed as the first dean. Dr. Warren had served on the Manhattan Project while on leave from his post at University of Rochester School of Medicine. As the founding dean of medical school, he proved to be a capable administrator and fundraiser. His choice of core faculty consisted of his former associates at Rochester in Andrew Dowdy as the first professor of radiology, John Lawrence as the first professor of medicine, and Charles Carpenter as the first professor of infectious diseases. Along with William Longmire Jr., a promising 34-year-old surgeon from Johns Hopkins, the group was called the Founding Five.
Building of the medical center and the School of Medicine began in 1949.
The 1951 charter class consisted of 26 men and 2 women. Initially there were 15 faculty members, although that number had increased to 43 by 1955 when the charter class graduated. The first classes were conducted in the reception lounge of the old Religious Conference Building on Le Conte Avenue.
In July of 1955, the UCLA Medical Center was opened.

Initial Founding
Sherman Mellinkoff succeeded Stafford Warren as dean in 1962 and served for the next 24 years. Under Dr. Mellinkoff, the school experienced unprecedented growth. The Neuropsychiatric Institute, the Brain Research Institute, and the Marion Davies Children's Center were founded. The Jules Stein Eye Institute and the Reed Neurological Research Center were established as well. By decade's end UCLA had doubled the size of the medical school and the hospital. School of Dentistry and School of Public Health as well as School of Nursing were formed as well. The medical school grew to nearly 400 medical students, more than 700 interns and residents, and almost 200 Masters and doctorate candidates.
A partnership was formed with the Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science in 1966 to train medical students with the goal of meeting the needs of the underserved in South Los Angeles.

Mellinkoff Administration
U.S. News and World Report ranks David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA at No. 13 in the U.S. in research.

US News and World Report
Diane J. Nugent (1977) is the medical director of Hematology and Blood & Donor Services and Chief of the PSF Division of Hematology at Children's Hospital of Orange County (CHOC).
Quynh Pham (1992) is the program director of physical medicine and rehabilitation program and pain medicine program at UCLA/VA Greater Los Angeles Multicampus PM&R Residency Program.
Lauren Pinter-Brown (1980) is the Director of the Lymphoma Program in the Division of Hematology-Oncology at the David Geffen School of Medicine, as well as a world-renowned lecturer and contributor to medical journals.