Friday, August 31, 2007

McCarthyism is the term describing a period of intense anti-Communist suspicion in the United States that lasted roughly from the late 1940s to the late 1950s. This period is also referred to as the Second Red Scare, and coincided with increased fears about Communist influence on American institutions and espionage by Soviet agents. Originally coined to criticize the actions of U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy, "McCarthyism" later took on a more general meaning, not necessarily referring to the conduct of Joseph McCarthy alone.
During this time many thousands of Americans were accused of being Communists or communist sympathizers and became the subject of aggressive investigations and questioning before government or private-industry panels, committees and agencies. The primary targets of such suspicions were government employees, those in the entertainment industry, educators and union activists. Suspicions were often given credence despite inconclusive or questionable evidence, and the level of threat posed by a person's real or supposed leftist associations or beliefs was often greatly exaggerated. Many people suffered loss of employment, destruction of their careers, and even imprisonment. Most of these punishments came about through trial verdicts later overturned, or extra-legal procedures that would come into general disrepute.

Origins of McCarthyism
There were many anti-Communist committees, panels and "loyalty review boards" in federal, state and local governments, as well as many private agencies that carried out investigations for small and large companies concerned about possible Communists in their work force.
In Congress, the most notable bodies for investigating Communist activities were the House Un-American Activities Committee, the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee and the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. Between 1949 and 1954, a total of 109 such investigations were carried out by these and other committees of Congress.

The institutions of McCarthyism

The Executive Branch
In the federal government, President Harry Truman's Executive Order 9835 initiated a program of loyalty reviews for federal employees in 1947. Truman's mandate called for dismissal if there were "reasonable grounds... for belief that the person involved is disloyal to the Government of the United States."

McCarthyism Loyalty-security reviews
In Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America, historian Ellen Schrecker calls the FBI "the single most important component of the anti-communist crusade" and writes: "Had observers known in the 1950s what they have learned since the 1970s, when the Freedom of Information Act opened the Bureau's files, 'McCarthyism' would probably be called 'Hooverism.'" COINTELPRO actions included planting forged documents to create the suspicion that a key person was an FBI informer, spreading rumors through anonymous letters, leaking information to the press, calling for IRS audits, and the like. The COINTELPRO program remained in operation until 1971.

J. Edgar Hoover and the FBI

Main article: House Un-American Activities Committee HUAC
In the Senate, the primary committee for investigating Communists was the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee (SISS), formed in 1950 and charged with ensuring the enforcement of laws relating to "espionage, sabotage, and the protection of the internal security of the United States." The SISS was headed by Democrat Pat McCarran and gained a reputation for careful and extensive investigations. This committee spent a year investigating Owen Lattimore and other members of the Institute of Pacific Relations. As had been done numerous times before, the collection of Scholars and diplomats associated with Lattimore (the so-called China Hands) were accused of "losing China," and while some evidence of pro-communist attitudes was found, there was nothing to support McCarran's accusation that Lattimore was "a conscious and articulate instrument of the Soviet conspiracy". Lattimore was charged with perjuring himself before the SISS in 1952. After many of the charges were rejected by a Federal Judge and one of the witnesses confessed to perjury, the case was dropped in 1955. In less than a year, McCarthy was censured by the Senate and his position as a prominent force in anti-communism was essentially ended.

Senate Committees
On November 25, 1947 (the day after the House of Representatives approved citations of contempt for the Hollywood Ten), Eric Johnston, President of the Motion Picture Association of America, issued a press release on behalf of the heads of the major studios that came to be referred to as the Waldorf Statement. This statement announced the firing of the Hollywood Ten and stated: "We will not knowingly employ a Communist or a member of any party or group which advocates the overthrow of the government of the United States[…]" This open capitulation to the attitudes of McCarthyism marked the beginning of the Hollywood blacklist. In spite of the fact that hundreds would be denied employment, the studios, producers and other employers did not publicly admit that a blacklist existed.
At this time, private loyalty-review boards and anti-communist investigators began to appear to fill a growing demand among certain industries to certify that their employees were above reproach. Companies that were concerned about the sensitivity of their business, or who, like the entertainment industry, felt particularly vulnerable to public opinion made use of these private services. For a fee, these teams would investigate employees and question them about their politics and affiliations. At such hearings, the subject would usually not have a right to the presence of an attorney, and as with HUAC, the interviewee might be asked to defend himself against accusations without being allowed to cross-examine the accuser. These agencies would keep cross-referenced lists of leftist organizations, publications, rallies, charities and the like, as well as lists of individuals who were known or suspected communists. Books such as Red Channels and newsletters such as Counterattack and Confidential Information were published to keep track of communist and leftist organizations and individuals. Insofar as the various blacklists of McCarthyism were actual physical lists, they were created and maintained by these private organizations.

There were several attempts to introduce legislation or apply existing laws to help to protect the United States from the perceived threat of Communist subversion.
The Alien Registration Act or Smith Act of 1940 made it a criminal offense for anyone to "knowingly or willfully advocate, abet, advise or teach the[…] desirability or propriety of overthrowing the Government of the United States or of any State by force or violence, or for anyone to organize any association which teaches, advises or encourages such an overthrow, or for anyone to become a member of or to affiliate with any such association". Hundreds of Communists were prosecuted under this law between 1941 and 1957. Eleven leaders of the Communist Party were charged and convicted under the Smith Act in 1949. Ten defendants were given sentences of five years and the eleventh was sentenced to three years. All of the defense attorneys were cited for contempt of court and were also given prison sentences. In 1951, twenty-three other leaders of the party were indicted including Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, a founding member of the American Civil Liberties Union. By 1957 over 140 leaders and members of the Communist Party had been charged under the law.

Popular support for McCarthyism
Those who sought to justify McCarthyism did so largely through their characterization of Communism, and American Communists in particular. The CPUSA was said to be under the complete control of Moscow, and in fact, there is documentary evidence that the general policies of the CPUSA were set by the Soviet Communist party.

Views of Communists
It is difficult to estimate the number of victims of McCarthyism. The number imprisoned is in the hundreds, and some ten or twelve thousand lost their jobs. Victims of McCarthyism
The nation was by no means united behind the policies and activities that have come to be identified as McCarthyism. There were many critics of various aspects of McCarthyism, including many figures not generally noted for their liberalism.
For example, in his overridden veto of the McCarran Internal Security Act of 1950, President Truman wrote "In a free country, we punish men for the crimes they commit, but never for the opinions they have." This exchange reflected a growing negative public opinion of McCarthy.

Critical reactions
As the nation moved into the mid and late fifties, the attitudes and institutions of McCarthyism slowly weakened. Changing public sentiments undoubtedly had a lot to do with this, but one way to chart the decline of McCarthyism is through a series of court decisions.
A key figure in the end of the blacklisting of McCarthyism was John Henry Faulk. Host of an afternoon comedy radio show, Faulk was a leftist active in his union, the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists. He was scrutinized by AWARE, one of the private firms that examined individuals for signs of communist "disloyalty". Marked by AWARE as unfit, he was fired by CBS Radio. Almost uniquely among the many victims of blacklisting, Faulk decided to sue AWARE in 1957 and finally won the case in 1962.

The decline of McCarthyism
Though McCarthyism might seem to be of interest only as a historical subject, the political divisions it created in the United States continue to manifest themselves, and the politics and history of anti-Communism in the United States are still contentious. One source of controversy is the comparison that a number of observers have made between the oppression of liberals and leftists during the McCarthy period and recent actions against Muslims and suspected terrorists. In The Age of Anxiety: McCarthyism to Terrorism, author Haynes Johnson compares the "abuses suffered by aliens thrown into high security U.S. prisons in the wake of 9/11" to the excesses of the McCarthy era.

McCarthyism Continuing controversy
Since the time of McCarthy, the word "McCarthyism" has entered American speech as a general term for a variety of distasteful practices: aggressively questioning a person's patriotism, making poorly supported accusations, using accusations of disloyalty to pressure a person to adhere to conformist politics or to discredit an opponent, subverting civil rights in the name of national security and the use of demagoguery are all often referred to as McCarthyism.

See also

Thursday, August 30, 2007

Mathematical model
Note: The term model has a different meaning in model theory, a branch of mathematical logic.
A mathematical model is an abstract model that uses mathematical language to describe the behaviour of a system. Mathematical models are used particularly in the natural sciences and engineering disciplines (such as physics, biology, and electrical engineering) but also in the social sciences (such as economics, sociology and political science); physicists, engineers, computer scientists, and economists use mathematical models most extensively.
Eykhoff (1974) defined a mathematical model as 'a representation of the essential aspects of an existing system (or a system to be constructed) which presents knowledge of that system in usable form'.

Examples of mathematical models
Often when engineers analyze a system to be controlled or optimized, they use a mathematical model. In analysis, engineers can build a descriptive model of the system as a hypothesis of how the system could work, or try to estimate how an unforeseeable event could affect the system. Similarly, in control of a system, engineers can try out different control approaches in simulations.
A mathematical model usually describes a system by a set of variables and a set of equations that establish relationships between the variables. The values of the variables can be practically anything; real or integer numbers, boolean values or strings, for example. The variables represent some properties of the system, for example, measured system outputs often in the form of signals, timing data, counters, event occurrence (yes/no). The actual model is the set of functions that describe the relations between the different variables.

There are six basic groups of variables: decision variables, input variables, state variables, exogenous variables, random variables, and output variables. Since there can be many variables of each type, the variables are generally represented by vectors.
Decision variables are sometimes known as independent variables. Exogenous variables are sometimes known as parameters or constants. The variables are not independent of each other as the state variables are dependent on the decision, input, random, and exogenous variables. Furthermore, the output variables are dependent on the state of the system (represented by the state variables).
Objectives and constraints of the system and its users can be represented as functions of the output variables or state variables. The objective functions will depend on the perspective of the model's user. Depending on the context, an objective function is also known as an index of performance, as it is some measure of interest to the user. Although there is no limit to the number of objective functions and constraints a model can have, using or optimizing the model becomes more involved (computationally).

Building blocks
Mathematical models can be classified in several ways, some of which are described below.

Linear vs. nonlinear: Mathematical models are usually composed by variables, which are abstractions of quantities of interest in the described systems, and operators that act on these variables, which can be algebraic operators, functions, differential operators, etc. If all the operators in a mathematical model present linearity, the resulting mathematical model is defined as linear. A model is considered to be nonlinear otherwise. In a mathematical programming model, if the objective functions and constraints are represented entirely by linear equations, then the model is regarded as a linear model. If one or more of the objective functions or constraints are represented with a nonlinear equation, then the model is known as a nonlinear model.
Deterministic vs. probabilistic (stochastic): A deterministic model is one in which every set of variable states is uniquely determined by parameters in the model and by sets of previous states of these variables. Therefore, deterministic models perform the same way for a given set of initial conditions. Conversely, in a stochastic model, randomness is present, and variable states are not described by unique values, but rather by probability distributions.
Static vs. dynamic: A static model does not account for the element of time, while a dynamic model does. Dynamic models typically are represented with difference equations or differential equations.
Lumped parameters vs. distributed parameters: If the model is homogeneous (consistent state throughout the entire system) the parameters are lumped. If the model is heterogeneous (varying state within the system), then the parameters are distributed. Distributed parameters are typically represented with partial differential equations. Classifying mathematical models
Mathematical modelling problems are often classified into black box or white box models, according to how much a priori information is available of the system. A black-box model is a system of which there is no a priori information available. A white-box model (also called glass box or clear box) is a system where all necessary information is available. Practically all systems are somewhere between the black-box and white-box models, so this concept only works as an intuitive guide for approach.
Usually it is preferable to use as much a priori information as possible to make the model more accurate. Therefore the white-box models are usually considered easier, because if you have used the information correctly, then the model will behave correctly. Often the a priori information comes in forms of knowing the type of functions relating different variables. For example, if we make a model of how a medicine works in a human system, we know that usually the amount of medicine in the blood is an exponentially decaying function. But we are still left with several unknown parameters; how rapidly does the medicine amount decay, and what is the initial amount of medicine in blood? This example is therefore not a completely white-box model. These parameters have to be estimated through some means before one can use the model.
In black-box models one tries to estimate both the functional form of relations between variables and the numerical parameters in those functions. Using a priori information we could end up, for example, with a set of functions that probably could describe the system adequately. If there is no a priori information we would try to use functions as general as possible to cover all different models. An often used approach for black-box models are neural networks which usually do not assume almost anything about the incoming data. The problem with using a large set of functions to describe a system is that estimating the parameters becomes increasingly difficult when the amount of parameters (and different types of functions) increases.

Any model which is not pure white-box contains some parameters that can be used to fit the model to the system it shall describe. If the modelling is done by a neural network, the optimization of parameters is called training. In more conventional modelling through explicitly given mathematical functions, parameters are determined by curve fitting.

An important part of the modelling process is the evaluation of an acquired model. How do we know if a mathematical model describes the system well? This is not an easy question to answer. Usually the engineer has a set of measurements from the system which are used in creating the model. Then, if the model was built well, the model will adequately show the relations between system variables for the measurements at hand. The question then becomes: How do we know that the measurement data are a representative set of possible values? Does the model describe well the properties of the system between the measurement data (interpolation)? Does the model describe well events outside the measurement data (extrapolation)?
A common approach is to split the measured data into two parts; training data and verification data. The training data are used to train the model, that is, to estimate the model parameters (see above). The verification data are used to evaluate model performance. Assuming that the training data and verification data are not the same, we can assume that if the model describes the verification data well, then the model describes the real system well.
However, this still leaves the extrapolation question open. How well does this model describe events outside the measured data? Consider again Newtonian classical mechanics-model. Newton made his measurements without advanced equipment, so he could not measure properties of particles travelling at speeds close to the speed of light. Likewise, he did not measure the movements of molecules and other small particles, but macro particles only. It is then not surprising that his model does not extrapolate well into these domains, even though his model is quite sufficient for ordinary life physics.

Prominent scientists

Computer simulation
Biologically-inspired computing
Model (economics)
Mathematical models in physics
Mathematical Psychology
Mathematical sociology
Mathematical modeling competitions
Mathematical modeling classification

Tuesday, August 28, 2007


Main article: Politics of American Samoa Politics
Persons born in American Samoa are American nationals, but not United States citizens. Such status is only conferred on persons born in the districts of American Samoa and Swains Island, but not to persons born in unorganized atolls.
Samoans are entitled to elect one non-voting delegate to the United States House of Representatives. Their delegate since 1989 has been Democrat Eni Fa'aua'a Hunkin Faleomavaega, Jr. They also receive delegates to the Democratic and Republican National Conventions.

Orthodoxy in Moldova Nationality

Main articles: Geography of American Samoa and Administrative divisions of American Samoa Geography

Main article: Economy of American Samoa Economy

Main article: Demographics of American Samoa Demographics

Main article: Culture of SamoaAmerican Samoa Sports

National Park of American Samoa
Transportation in American Samoa
Communications in American Samoa
List of governors of American Samoa
Scouting in American Samoa
American Samoa Territorial Police
Wikimedia Atlas of American Samoa, holding maps related to American Samoa.

Monday, August 27, 2007

Linda Sanchez
Linda T. Sánchez (born January 28, 1969 in Orange, California), an American politician, has been a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives since 2003, representing the 39th District of California (map). She was born in Orange, California, earned her BA in Spanish in 1991 at the University of California, Berkeley and in 1995 her Juris Doctor degree at the University of California, Los Angeles, where she was an editor of the Chicano-Latino Law Review. She was an attorney specializing in labor law prior to her public service career. She is the younger sister of 47th District Congresswoman Loretta Sanchez, who is nine years her senior, making them the only sister pair to ever serve in Congress.
Linda Sánchez is considered to be more liberal than her older sister. While Loretta began her political career as a liberal Republican, Linda has always been a Democrat.

Linda Sanchez Congressional career
Following Hurricane Katrina in late August 2005, President George W. Bush suspended the Davis-Bacon Act, a 1934 law which requires government contractors to pay prevailing wages. Linda Sánchez was a very vocal critic of the suspension, and led the fight to reverse it [1]. Sánchez eventually won, as Bush reversed himself on October 26 [2], 2005.

Sunday, August 26, 2007

January 12, 2004

The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office announces the ten top United States patent recipients. For the 11th year in a row, IBM tops the list; the next three in the list are headquartered in Japan. Companies from the Netherlands (Philips) and Korea (Samsung) also make appearances. [1]
The U.S. State Department concludes that the Israeli attack on USS Liberty in 1967, although probably accidental, was an act of gross negligence and that Israel should be held responsible. [2] [3]
Canadian federal election, 2004: Stephen Harper announces his entry into the race to lead the new Conservative Party of Canada. Earlier today, Jim Prentice drops out of the leadership contest, citing a lack of funds. [4]
Israeli-Palestinian conflict: Over 100,000 people rally in Tel Aviv to protest Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's plans to withdraw from parts of Gaza and the West Bank, which would involve abandoning some Israeli settlements in those areas. [5]
The deadline for SCO Group to present evidence "with specificity" in the SCO v. IBM lawsuit expires
IBM and Intel Set Up $10m SCO Defense Fund. [6]
Astronauts on board the International Space Station think that a leak in a hose used to stop the fogging of an Earth observation window was causing the slow loss of pressure in the station. Although it would have taken a couple of months for the crew to be in any danger, some equipment on the station was only rated to just below the normal pressure. Although the cause appears to have been located, ground controllers are still getting the crew to close the station into three sections to allow them to get baseline pressure readings and to make sure that there are no more leaks. [7]
Computer Associates says may face SEC civil action: Software company Computer Associates International Inc, which is under investigation by federal regulators over its accounting practices, says it may face civil charges for improper accounting of revenue in fiscal 2000. [8]
Iran's provincial governors are threatening to resign unless a decision by the conservative Guardian Council is reversed. [9]
Mars Exploration Rover Mission: The Spirit's air bags that cushioned its landing on Mars have been obstructing the vehicle's path, and this complication has postponed its exit of the launch vehicle until Wednesday or Thursday. [10]
The World Wildlife Fund-UK reports that the orangutan is in danger of becoming extinct within the next 20 years because of commercial logging and clearance for oil palm plantations. [11]
Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, religious leader of Iran, announces that he will not intervene in a growing political confrontation between progressives and hardliners after the Guardian Council, which he controls, barred thousands of candidates from running in upcoming Parliamentary elections (including 80 current members of Parliament). [12]

Saturday, August 25, 2007

Apex is a town in Wake County, North Carolina, a satellite city of Raleigh. The population was 20,212 at the 2000 census and is at an estimated 31,453 in 2007. The town motto is "The Peak of Good Living."

The town of Apex was incorporated in 1873, named for its location as the highest point on the Chatham Railroad between Richmond, Virginia and Jacksonville, Florida. Apex grew slowly through the succeeding decades, despite several devastating fires, including a 1912 conflagration which destroyed most of the downtown business district. The town center was rebuilt and stands to this day, now one of the most intact railroad towns in the state. At the heart of town stands the Apex Union Depot, originally passenger station for the Seaboard Air Line Railroad and later home to the locally-supported Apex Community Library. The depot now houses the Apex Chamber of Commerce
Apex suffered mild setbacks during the Depression-era, but growth began again in earnest in the 1950s. The town's position in proximity to North Carolina's Research Triangle Park spurred additional residential development, yet the town managed to preserve its small-town character. Still, during the decade of the 1990s, the town's population quadrupled to over 20,000, placing unprecedented demands upon Apex's infrastructure.
In October, 2006, a chemical fire in an Apex waste processing facility generated worldwide headlines when much of the town was temporarily evacuated

Apex, North Carolina History
Apex's Council-Manager form of government comprises a mayor and five councilmen (one who serves as Mayor pro tem) who are elected at-large for four-year terms. A professional Town Manager and staff direct all Town departments.
Keith Weatherly is the mayor of Apex, he was first elected to the post in 1995 after serving for 2 years on the council. He is currently serving his 3rd term.
Mayor pro tem: Mike Jones (4th term)
Town Manager: Bruce Radford
Asst. Town Manager: Mike Wilson
Town Clerk: Georgia Evangelist
Director of Public Works: Tim Donnelly

Bryan Gossage (1st term)
Bill Jensen (2nd term)
Gene Schulze (2nd term)
Bill Sutton (1st term) Government
As of the census of 2000, there were 20,212 people, 7,397 households, and 5,584 families residing in the town. The population density was 740.4/km² (1,918.2/mi²). There were 8,028 housing units at an average density of 294.1/km² (761.9/mi²). The racial makeup of the town was 85.06% White, 7.55% African American, 0.29% Native American, 4.27% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.11% from other races, and 1.67% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.21% of the population.
There were 7,397 households out of which 46.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.2% were married couples living together, 7.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.5% were non-families. 18.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.16.
In the town the population was spread out with 30.8% under the age of 18, 5.4% from 18 to 24, 44.8% from 25 to 44, 15.0% from 45 to 64, and 4.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 97.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.0 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $71,052, and the median income for a family was $78,689. Males had a median income of $55,587 versus $37,057 for females. The per capita income for the town was $28,727. About 1.2% of families and 1.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.2% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over.


AV Baucom Elementary
Olive Chapel Elementary
Salem Elementary School
Salem Middle School
Apex Elementary School
Apex Middle School
Apex High School
Middle Creek High School
St.Mary Magdalene Church School
Turner Creek Elementary School Schools
This is a listing of Apex Neighborhoods with external links:

Beckett Crossing
Cameron Park
Charleston Village
Crockett's Ridge
Hollands Crossing
Haddon Hall (Haddon Hall Wikipedia article)
Homestead Park
Scotts Mill
Shepherd's Vineyard
Waterford Green
Whitehall Manor
Village at Crockett's Ridge Neighborhoods

Friday, August 24, 2007

Frank Mancuso
Frank Octavius Mancuso (May 23, 1918 - August 4, 2007) was a catcher in Major League Baseball who played for two teams between 1944 and 1947. Listed at 6' 0", 195 lb., Mancuso batted and threw right handed. He was born in Houston, Texas. His older brother, Gus Mancuso, also was a major league catcher. Following his 18-year baseball career, Mancuso almost certainly had the longest continuous tenure of any elected city official in Houston history.
Mancuso began playing baseball in 1937 in the minor league system of the New York Giants. After hitting .417 for Fort Smith in 1938, the Giants moved him up to their major league roster for the entire 1939 season as a third string catcher, but he did not get into a single game during the regular season. That disappointment was offset by the opportunity he had to warm up pitcher Carl Hubbell, and sharing the company of other great Giants like OF Mel Ott and manager Bill Terry. He was sent back to the minors before the 1940 season.
After hitting .300 or more in three minor league seasons, Mancuso entered the U.S. Army as a paratrooper at Fort Benning, Georgia in December 1942 and was on his way to an accident that forever altered the course of his baseball career. In 1943, he suffered a broken back and leg when his chute opened late and improperly. He almost died from his injuries and was subsequently discharged from the service for medical reasons. A part of his injury was an unfortunate condition for a catcher, where in looking straight up caused him to lose the flow of oxygen to the brain, and he would pass out. As a result, he never regained all of his mobility after the parachute jump and was never responsible for catching pop-ups.
Mancuso spent the rest of his life with back and legs pains, but he worked himself back into shape and returned to baseball in 1944 as one of two catchers for the only St. Louis Browns club to ever win an American League pennant. He shared duties with Red Hayworth, hitting .205 with one home run and 24 RBI in 88 games. The Browns lost to the St. Louis Cardinals in the 1944 World Series in six games, but Mancuso hit .667 (2-for-3) and collected one RBI in injury-limited pinch-hitting duty. His most productive season came in 1945, when he posted career-numbers in games (119), batting average (.268), RBI (38) and runs (39). In 1946 he hit .240 with a career-high three home runs in 87 games, playing his last majors season with the Washington Senators in 1946.
In a four-season career, Mancuso was a .241 hitter (241-for-1002) with five home runs and 98 RBI in 337 games, including 85 runs, 37 doubles, seven triples, and two stolen bases.
From 1948-1955, Mancuso earned further respect as a catcher for top minor league clubs like Toledo and Beaumont, among others, and with the 1953 Houston Buffs, a minors club that preceded the Colt .45s & Astros. He also played winter baseball in the Venezuelan League during the 1950-51 and 1951-52 seasons. In his first season, he hit .407 with 49 RBI and also became the first player in the league to hit 10 home runs in a 42-game schedule.
After baseball retirement, Mancuso served for 30 consecutive years (1963-93) on the Houston City Council. During his political life, he gave of himself generously to the needs of the young people and to causes benefiting disadvantaged children. He also supported the creation of Lake Livingston and Lake Conroe reservoir to meet the city's long-term water needs; the construction of Houston Intercontinental Airport, and was chairmanship of a special committee that recommended the Houston Fire Department have its own ambulance service. Beside this, Mancuso also was the only Italian-American on the council; the Italian-American heads of city departments; and other high-ranking city, county and state employees.
In the late 1990s, Harris County built the Frank Mancuso Sports Complex, a facility that strategically reaches out to the needs of inner city kids, in his honor. His 2003 induction into the Texas Baseball Hall of Fame reunited him with his older brother, Gus Mancuso (1905-1984), as the second member of the family to be inducted.
Mancuso died in Pasadena, Texas at the age of 89.

Thursday, August 23, 2007

This article is about a class of programming languages, for the method for reducing the runtime of algorithms, see Dynamic programming.
Dynamic programming language is a term used broadly in computer science to describe a class of high level programming languages that execute at runtime many common behaviors that other languages might perform during compilation, if at all. These behaviors could include extension of the program, by adding new code, by extending objects and definitions, or by modifying the type system, all during program execution. These behaviors can be emulated in nearly any language of sufficient complexity, but dynamic languages provide direct tools to make use of them.
Dynamic languages and dynamic typing are not identical concepts, and a dynamic language need not be dynamically typed, though many dynamic languages are dynamically typed.

Limitations and ambiguity in the definition
There are several mechanisms closely associated with the concept of dynamic programming. None are essential to the classification of a language as dynamic, but most can be found in a wide variety of such languages.

Eval is a term which was introduced in Lisp, and refers to the process of executing instructions which are represented by data structures called S-expressions. In its modern sense, eval or evalling refers to the mechanism or process of executing any sort of instructions that are available to the program as text or non-machine code data. The evaluation of new program text is a common aspect of many languages that, unlike Lisp, do not make a distinction between reading text and transforming it into an internal form and further transforming that internal form into actions to be taken. These languages are often called interpreted languages when the process of normal program execution is an eval.

Dynamic programming language Eval
However, Erik Meijer and Peter Drayton caution that any language, capable of loading executable code at runtime, is capable of eval in some respect, even when that code is in the form of dynamically linked shared libraries of machine code. They suggest that higher-order functions are the true measure of dynamic programming, and some languages "use eval as a poor man's substitute for higher-order functions."

Higher-order functions
A type or object system can typically be modified during runtime in a dynamic language. This can mean generating new objects from a runtime definition or based on mixins of existing types or objects. This can also refer to changing the inheritance or type tree, and thus altering the way that existing types behave (especially with respect to the invocation of methods).

Runtime alteration of object or type system
Functional programming concepts are a feature of many dynamic languages, and also derive from Lisp.

Another feature of some dynamic languages is the continuation. Continuations represent execution state that can be re-invoked. For example, a parser might return an intermediate result and a continuation that, when invoked, will continue to parse the input. Continuations interact in very complex ways with scoping, especially with respect to closures. For this reason, many dynamic languages do not provide continuations.

Introspection is common in many dynamic languages, and typically involves a program analyzing its own structure, code, types or data. This can be as simple as being able to determine the type of a generic or polymorphic value. It can also include full analysis of a program's code as data, such as the features that Lisp provides in analyzing S-expressions.

A limited number of dynamic programming languages provide features which combine code introspection and eval in a feature called macros. Most programmers today who are aware of macros have encountered them in C or C++, where they are a static feature which are built in a small subset of the language, and are capable only of string substitutions on the text of the program. In dynamic languages, however, they provide access to the inner workings of the compiler, and full access to the runtime, allowing the definition of language-like constructs which can optimize code or modify the syntax or grammar of the language.


Comparison of programming languages
Name binding

Wednesday, August 22, 2007

New York Yankees
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(Also referred to as "Americans" 1903-1909 and "Yankees" 1910-1912)
[1] - In 1981, a players' strike in the middle of the season forced the season to be split into two halves. New York had the best record in the East Division when play was stopped and was declared the first-half division winner. The Yankees had the third best record in the division when considering the entire season, two games behind Milwaukee and Baltimore. [2] - In 1994, a players' strike wiped out the last eight weeks of the season and all post-season. New York was in first place in the East Division by six and a half games when play was stopped. No official titles were awarded in 1994.

The New York Yankees are a professional Major League Baseball team based in the borough of The Bronx, in New York City. The team's name is often shortened to "the Yanks," and their most prominently used nickname is "the Bronx Bombers," or simply "the Bombers." A less used nickname is "the Pinstripers." The organization is sometimes referred to by detractors as "the Bronx Zoo" (echoing the title of Sparky Lyle's book) or "the Evil Empire," although both names have been embraced by some fans.
One of the American League's eight charter franchises, the club was founded in Baltimore, Maryland in 1901 as the Baltimore Orioles (not to be confused with the current Baltimore Orioles, who moved to Baltimore from St. Louis in 1954), moving to New York in 1903 to become the New York Highlanders. From 1923 to the present, the Yankees have played at Yankee Stadium. The Yankees have been Major League Baseball's winningest franchise, winning 26 World Series titles and 39 American League Pennants. Their 26 titles make them the most successful franchise in North American professional sports history, passing the Montreal Canadiens' 24 titles in 1999. They are also the only team represented in the National Baseball Hall of Fame at every position. Notably, they have faced every winner of the National League pennant in the World Series except for the Houston Astros, who won their first pennant in 2005. No other team has come close to matching this feat.
The Yankees also have one of the longest standing and most storied rivalries in North American sports with the nearby Boston Red Sox. The Yankees-Red Sox Rivalry has centered around the supposed Curse of the Bambino, and has gained even more significance with the creation of the Wild Card in 1995, which allowed the two teams to meet in the playoffs.

Main article: History of the New York Yankees

Tuesday, August 21, 2007

West Germanic language
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest branch of the Germanic family of languages and include languages such as German, English and Frisian, as well as Dutch and Afrikaans. The other branches of the Germanic languages are the North and East Germanic languages.

The Germanic languages are traditionally divided into three groups, West, East and North Germanic. including:
Under this view, the properties that the West Germanic languages have in common separate from the North Germanic languages are not inherited from a "Proto-West-Germanic" language, but rather spread by language contact among the Germanic languages spoken in central Europe, not reaching those spoken in Scandinavia.

The loss of w after ng
Gemination of consonants (except r) before j
Replacement of the 2nd person singular preterite ending -t with -i
Short forms of the verbs for "stand" and "go"
The development of a gerund
North Sea Germanic (Ingvaeonic, ancestral to Anglo-Frisian and Low Saxon)
Elbe Germanic (Irminonic, ancestral to High German)
Weser-Rhine Germanic (Istvaeonic, ancestral to Old Frankish)
The retraction of Proto-Germanic ǣ to ā
The development of umlaut
The rhotacism of z to r
The development of the demonstrative pronoun ancestral to English this Modern variants

Main article: List of West Germanic languages

Sunday, August 19, 2007

The Austro-Hungarian Empire, also known as Austria-Hungary, Dual Monarchy or k.u.k. Monarchy or Dual State, was a dual-monarchic union state in Central Europe from 1867 to 1918, dissolved at the end of World War I.
The dual monarchy was the successor to the Austrian Empire (1804–1867) on the same territory, originating in the compromise between the ruling Habsburg dynasty and the Hungarians.
As a multi-national empire and great power in an era of national awakening, it found its political life dominated by disputes among the eleven principal national groups.
Its economic and social life was marked by a rapid economic growth through the age of industrialization and social modernization through many liberal and democratic reforms.
The Habsburg dynasty ruled as Emperors of Austria over the western and northern half of the country and as Kings of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary which enjoyed some degree of self-government and representation in joint affairs (principally foreign relations and defence).
The federation bore the full name internationally of "The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen".
The capital of the state was Vienna. The Austro-Hungarian Empire was geographically the second largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, and the third most populous (after both Russia and the German Empire). The territory it covered today has a population of about 73 million.
Names of the Empire in languages officially recognized by the Austro-Hungarian Empire:

German: Österreich-Ungarn
Hungarian: Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia
Bosnian: Austro-Ugarska
Czech: Rakousko-Uhersko
Croatian: Austro-Ugarska
Italian: Austria-Ungheria
Polish: Austro-Węgry
Romanian: Austro-Ungaria
Slovak: Rakúsko-Uhorsko
Slovenian: Avstro-Ogrska
Serbian: Aустро-Угарска, Austro-Ugarska
Serbo-Croat: Austro-Ugarska
Ukrainian: Австро-Угорщина, Avstro-Uhorščyna
Rusyn: Австро-Магярщина, Avstro-Magyarščina Creation of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Article 19 of the Austro-Hungarian constitution stated:
All races of the empire have equal rights, and every race has an inviolable right to the preservation and use of its own nationality and language. The equality of all customary languages ("landesübliche Sprache") in school, office and public life, is recognized by the state. In those territories in which several races dwell, the public and educational institutions are to be so arranged that, without applying compulsion to learn a second country language ("Landessprache"), each of the races receives the necessary means of education in its own language.
The implementation of this principle led to several disputes since everything depended on the decision as to which language could be regarded as landesüblich or customary. The Germans, the traditional bureaucratic, capitalist and cultural elite, demanded the recognition of their language as a customary language in every part of the empire. While Italian was regarded as an old "culture language" (Kultursprache) by German-speaking intellectuals and had always been granted equal rights as an official language of the Empire, they had particular difficulties in accepting the Slavic languages as equal to German. On one occasion Count A. Auersperg (Anastasius Grün) entered the diet of Carniola carrying what he claimed to be the whole corpus of Slovenian literature under his arm to provide evidence that the Slovenian language could in his view not be substituted for German as a medium of higher education.
Nevertheless the following years saw an emancipation of several languages at least in the Cisleithanian part of the Empire. In a series of laws from 1867 and onwards, the Croatian language was raised to equality with the hitherto officially dominating Italian language in Dalmatia. From 1882 there was a Slovenian majority in the diet of Carniola and in the capital Laibach (Ljubljana), thereby replacing German as the dominant official language. Polish was introduced instead of German in 1869 in Galicia as the normal language of government. The Poles themselves systematically disregarded the large Ukrainian minority in the country, and Ukrainian was not granted the status of an official language.
The language disputes were most fiercely fought in Bohemia and Moravia where the Czechs wanted to establish their language as the dominating language even in the purely German-speaking bordering areas of the country (later called the "Sudetenland"). German-speakers lost their majority in the Bohemian diet in 1880 and their dominating position in the cities of Prague and Pilsen (while retaining a slight numerical majority in the city of Brno (Brünn)) and found themselves in an unfamiliar minority position. The old Charles University in Prague hitherto dominated by the German-speakers was divided into a German and a Czech part in 1882.
At the same time, Magyar dominance faced challenges from the local majorities of Romanians in Transylvania and in the eastern Banat, of Slovaks in today's Slovakia, of Croats and Serbs in the crownlands of Croatia and of Dalmatia (today's Croatia), in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in the provinces known as the Vojvodina (today's northern Serbia). The Romanians and the Serbs also looked to union with their fellow-nationalists in the newly-founded states of Romania (1859–78) and Serbia.
Though Hungary's leaders showed on the whole less willingness than their Austrian counterparts to share power with their subject minorities, they granted (it is argued) a large measure of autonomy to the kingdom of Croatia in 1868, parallelling to some extent their own accommodation within the Empire the previous year.
Language was one of the most contentious questions in Austro-Hungarian politics. All governments faced difficult and divisive hurdles in sorting out the languages of government and of instruction. Minorities wanted to ensure the widest possibility for education in their own language as well as in the "dominant" languages of Hungarian and German. On one notable occasion, that of the so-called "Ordinance of April 5, 1897", the Austrian Prime Minister Kasimir Felix Graf Badeni gave Czech equal standing with German in the internal government of Bohemia and also in the purely German-speaking parts of Bohemia, leading to a crisis because of nationalist German agitation throughout the Empire. In the end Badeni was dismissed.
From January 1907 all the public and private schools in the Slovak part of Hungary (with approximately 2m inhabitants) were forced to teach solely in the Hungarian language, burning Slovak books and newspapers. This led to wide criticism by Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, among others.
It was not rare for the two kingdoms to divide spheres of influence. According to Misha Glenny (The Balkans, 1804–1999), the Austrians responded to Hungarian badgering of Czechs by supporting the Croatian national movement in Zagreb. (Croatia, in spite of nominal autonomy, was in fact an economic and administrative arm of Hungary, which the Croatians resented).
Emperor Franz Joseph himself was very well aware that he reigned in a multiethnic country and spoke fluent German, Hungarian, Czech, and, to some degree, also Polish and Italian.
The situation of Jews in the kingdom, who numbered about 2 million in 1914, was ambiguous. Anti-Semitic parties and movements existed, but Vienna did not initiate pogroms or implement official anti-Semitic policies. This was mainly out of fear that such ethnic violence could ignite other ethnic minorities and result in violence that could spin out of control. The majority of Jews lived in small towns of Galicia and rural areas in Hungary, Bohemia, although there were large communities in Vienna, Budapest, Prague and other large cities.

Ethnic relations

Austro-Hungarian Monarchy Common languages in Cisleithania
Source: Census Dec. 31st 1910, published in: Geographischer Atlas zur Vaterlandskunde an der österreichischen Mittelschulen. K. u. k. Hof-Kartographische Anstalt G. Freytag & Berndt, Vienna, 1911.


Main article: Austro-Hungarian Army Military
The Imperial (Austrian) and Royal (Hungarian) governments differed also to some extent in their attitude toward the Empire's common foreign policy. Politicians in Budapest particularly feared annexations of territory which would add to the kingdom's non-Hungarian populations. But the Empire's alliance with Germany against Russia from October 1879 (see Dual Alliance, 1879) commanded general acceptance, since Russia seemed the principal external military threat to both parts.
Austro-Hungarian forces occupied the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina from August 1878 under the Treaty of Berlin. The Empire annexed this territory in October 1908 as a common holding under the control of the finance ministry rather than attaching it to either territorial government. The annexation set up an anomalous situation which led some in Vienna to contemplate combining Bosnia and Herzegovina with Croatia to form a third component of the Empire, uniting its southern Slav regions under the domination of Croatians, who might have proved more sympathetic to Vienna than to Budapest.

Foreign policy
The deaths of Franz Joseph's brother, Maximilian (1867), and only son, Rudolf, made the Emperor's nephew, Franz Ferdinand, heir presumptive to the crown. On June 28, 1914, the heir visited the Bosnian capital, Sarajevo, where Bosnian Serb militants of the nationalist group Mlada Bosna, supplied by the violent Serbian militant group Black Hand, ambushed Franz Ferdinand's convoy and assassinated him. See: Assassination in Sarajevo
After the Congress of Berlin the Empire's military spending did not even double, while that of Germany rose fivefold, and British, Russian and French spending rose threefold. The Empire had previously lost ethnically Italian areas to Piedmont due to nationalist movements sweeping through Italy, and many Austro-Hungarians felt the threat of losing the southern territories inhabited by Slavs to Serbia as imminent. Serbia had recently gained a significant amount of territory in the Second Balkan War of 1913, causing much distress in government circles in Vienna and Budapest. Some members of the government, such as Conrad von Hötzendorf had wanted to confront the resurgent Serbian nation for some years. The leadership of Austria-Hungary, especially Count Leopold von Berchtold, backed by its ally Germany, decided to confront Serbia militarily before it could incite a revolt: using the assassination as an excuse, they presented a list of ten demands called the July Ultimatum [1] expecting Serbia would never accept. When Serbia accepted nine of the ten demands but only partially accepted the remaining one, Austria-Hungary declared war.
These events brought the Empire into conflict with Serbia and over the course of July and August 1914, caused the start of World War I, as Russia mobilized in support of Serbia, setting off a series of counter-mobilizations.
Italy initially remained neutral, although it had an alliance with Austria–Hungary. In 1915 it switched to the side of the Entente powers, hoping to gain territory from Austria–Hungary.
General Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf was the Chief of the Austro-Hungarian General Staff during the war. Under his command, Austro-Hungarian troops were involved in much of the fighting in the Great War.
At the start of the war, the army was divided in two, the smaller part attacked Serbia while the larger part fought against the massive Russian army. The 1914 invasion of Serbia was a disaster. By the end of the year the Austrian army had taken no territory and had lost 227,000 men (out of a total force of 450,000 men); see Serbian Campaign (World War I).
On the Eastern front, things started out equally badly. The Austrian army was defeated at the Battle of Lemberg and the mighty fort city of Przemysl was besieged (it would fall in March 1915).
In May 1915, Italy joined the Allies and attacked Austria-Hungary. The bloody but indecisive fighting on the Italian front would last for the next three and a half years. It was only this front that the Austrians proved effective in war, managing to hold back the numerically superior Italian armies in the Alps.
In the summer, the Austrian army, working under a unified command with the Germans, participated in the successful Gorlice–Tarnow Offensive.
Later in 1915, the Austrian army, in conjunction with the German and Bulgarian armies, conquered Serbia.
In 1916, the Russians focused their attacks on the Austrian-Hungarian army in the Brusilov Offensive, recognising the numerical inferiority of the Austro-Hungarian Army. The Austrian armies took massive losses (losing about 1 million men) and never recovered. The huge losses of men and material inflicted on the Russians during the offensive contributed greatly to the causes of their communist revolution of 1917. The Austro-Hungarian war effort became more and more subordinate to the direction of German planners, as it did with the standard soldiers. The Austrians saw the German army positively, but by 1916 the general belief in Germany was that they were "shackled to a corpse." Supply shortages, low morale, and the high casualty rate seriously affected the operational abilities of the army, as well as the fact the army was of multiple ethnicity, all with different race, language and customs.
The last two successes for the Austrians: the Conquest of Romania and the Caporetto Offensive, were German-assisted operations. Due to the fact that the empire had become more and more dependent on German assistance, the majority of its people, not of Hungarian or Austrian ethnicity, became aware of the empire's destabilisation.
In June 1918, Conrad attempted a double edged offensive with the bulk of remaining Austro-Hungarian forces against Italy. It failed, and in October 1918 the Italian army counter-attacked, gaining victory in the battle of Vittorio Veneto, destroying the last of the Austrian Army and ending the Habsburg Empire.

The Great War
As it became apparent that the Allied Powers of the British Empire, France, Italy and the United States would win World War I, nationalist movements which had previously been calling for a greater degree of autonomy for various areas, started pressing for full independence. With defeat in the war imminent, Czechoslovakia declared independence on 28 October 1918 and on 29 October the southern Slav areas declared the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. The Hungarian government terminated its union with Austria on 31 October 1918, officially dissolving the Austro-Hungarian state.
In Austria and Hungary, separate republics were declared at the end of the war in November. The treaty of Saint Germain (between the victors of World War I and Austria) and the treaty of Trianon (between the victors and Hungary) regulated the dissolution of Austria–Hungary. The last Habsburg emperor-king, Karl I (styled Károly IV in Hungary), renounced participation in affairs of state (but did not abdicate) and fled to Switzerland.
A monarchist revival in Hungary after a short-lived communist regime and the Romanian intervention of 1919 resulted in the restoration of the Hungarian monarchy (March 1920), with the royal powers entrusted to a regent, the naval hero Admiral Miklós Horthy. Ill-prepared attempts by Karl to regain the throne in Budapest (March, October 1921) collapsed when the initially wavering Horthy, who had received threats of intervention from the Allied powers and neighboring countries, refused his cooperation. Subsequently the British took custody of Karl and removed him and his family to the Portuguese island of Madeira, where he died the following year.

Dissolution of the Empire
The following successor states were formed (entirely or in part) from the former Habsburg lands:
Some Austro-Hungarian lands were also ceded to Romania, Ukraine and Italy. Liechtenstein, which had formerly looked to Vienna for protection, formed a customs and defence union with Switzerland, and adopted the Swiss currency instead of the Austrian. In April 1919 Vorarlberg, the westernmost province of Austria, voted by a large majority to join Switzerland; however both the Swiss and the Allies disregarded this result.

State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (joined with the Kingdom of Serbia on 1 December 1918 to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, later Yugoslavia)
Poland New states
The following countries were located within the boundaries of Austria-Hungary when the empire was dissolved:
Empire of Austria (Cisleithania)
Kingdom of Hungary (Transleithania)
Austrian-Hungarian Condominium
Other parts of Europe had been part of the Habsburg-monarchy once but left it even before its dissolution in 1918. Prominent examples are the regions of Lombardia and Veneto in Italy, most of Belgium and parts of northern Switzerland and south-western Germany.

Austria (with the exception of Burgenland)
Czech Republic (with the exception of Hlučínsko Area)
Slovenia (with the exception of Prekmurje)
Italy (autonomous regions of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and small portions of Friuli-Venezia Giulia)
Croatia (Dalmatia, Istria)
Poland (voivodeships of Lesser Poland, Subcarpathia, Silesia with the exception of the area of Katowice)
Ukraine (oblasts of Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk, and Ternopil, and most of the oblast of Chernivtsi)
Romania (county of Suceava)
Montenegro (bay of Boka Kotorska, the coast and the immediate hinterland around cities of Budva, Petrovac and Sutomore)
Austria (Burgenland)
Slovenia (Prekmurje)
Croatia (Slavonia, Central Croatia, southern parts of the pre-1918 Baranya and Zala counties - today's Croatian part of Baranja and Međimurje county - )
Ukraine (oblast of Zakarpattia)
Romania (region of Transylvania)
Serbia (autonomous province of Vojvodina, large parts of the Belgrade region)
Bosnia and Herzegovina (the villages of Zavalje, Mali skočaj and Veliki skočaj incl. the immediate surrounding area western of the city of Bihać)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Montenegro (Sutorina - western part of the Municipality of Herceg-Novi between present borders with Croatia (SW) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (NW), Adriatic coast (E) and the township of Igalo (NE)) Flags and heraldry of Austria-Hungary

Czech lands: 1867-1918
Aftermath of World War I
Austrian nobility
Habsburg Monarchy
Former countries in Europe after 1815
List of extinct states
Banat Republic
Corporative federalism, a form of administration adopted by the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Baron Ladislaus Hengelmuller, Austro-Hungarian Ambassador to the United States from 1894–1913