Friday, November 30, 2007

Dale Peck
Dale Peck (born 1967 on Long Island, New York) is an American novelist.
Peck was raised in Kansas, and attended Drew University in New Jersey. He received a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1995. He currently teaches creative writing at The New School in New York City.
Peck is best known as a controversial and caustic literary critic, who famously described Rick Moody as "the worst writer of his generation." His own novels have received mixed reviews; described Now It's Time to Say Goodbye as a "hyperpotboiler" with a plot "both sensational and preposterous" [1] The New York Review of Books called Martin and John "surprisingly sophisticated", but said Now It's Time to Say Goodbye "collapsed under the weight of its overladen allegorical structures" and diagnosed Peck's fiction as a "seesaw between a strained "lyricism" ... and cliché" [2].
Peck currently writes for The New Republic and other publications. His negative criticism and the general tone of The New Republic was attacked by the editors of n+1 magazine. They said:
"With the emergence of the ridiculous Dale Peck, the method of Wieseltier's literary salon reached its reductio ad absurdum. Peck smeared the walls with shit, and bankrupted their authority for all time to come. So many forms of extremism turn into their opposite at the terminal stage. Thus The New Republic's supposed brief for dry, austere, high-literary value—manifesting itself for years in a baffled rage against everything new or confusing—led to Peck's auto-therapeutic wetness (as self-pity is the refuge of bullies) and hatred of classic modernism (which, to philistines, will always be new and confusing)." [3]

Thursday, November 29, 2007

The Home Office is a large United Kingdom government department, responsible for internal affairs, such as security, crime, drugs, counter-terrorism and ID cards. It continues to be known, especially in official papers, as in former times as the Home Department.

The Home Office has the following stated objectives:

To cut crime, especially violent and drug-related crime
To ensure people feel safer in their homes and daily lives, particularly through more visible, responsive and accountable policing
To protect the UK from terrorist attack
To rebalance the criminal justice system in favour of the law-abiding majority and victims
To manage offenders in order to protect the public and reduce re-offending
To secure the borders of the United Kingdom, prevent abuse of immigration laws and manage migration to the benefit of the UK. Objectives of the Home Office
(as of 29 June 2007)

Secretary of State for the Home Department (aka the "Home Secretary"): The Rt Hon. Jacqui Smith, MP

  • Minister of State (Security, Counterterrorism and Police): Tony McNulty, MP
    Minister of State (Immigration and Asylum) and Minister for the West Midlands: The Rt Hon. Liam Byrne, MP

    • Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State: Vernon Coaker, MP
      Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State: Meg Hillier, MP
      Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State (Security, Counterterrorism and Police): Admiral The Lord West of Spithead, GCB, DSC Ministers
      On March 27, 1782, the Home Office was formed by renaming the existing Southern Department, with all existing staff transferring. On the same day, the Northern Department was renamed the Foreign Office.
      To match the new names, there was a transferring of responsibilities between the two Departments of State. All domestic responsibilities were moved to the Home Office, and all foreign matters became the concern of the Foreign Office.
      All subsequent domestic departments have been formed by splitting responsibilities away from the Home Office.
      The initial responsibilities were:
      Responsibilities were subsequently changed over the years that followed:
      The Home Office retains a variety of functions that have not found a home elsewhere, and sit oddly with the main law-and-order focus of the department, such as regulation of British Summer Time.

      answering petitions and addresses sent to the King
      advising the King on

      • royal grants
        warrants and commissions
        the exercise of Royal Prerogative
        issuing instructions on behalf of the King to officers of the Crown, Lords Lieutenant and magistrates, mainly concerning law and order
        operation of the secret service within the UK
        protecting the public
        safeguarding the rights and liberties of individuals
        1793 added: regulation of aliens
        1794 removed: control of military forces (to Secretary of State for War)
        1801 removed: colonial business (to Secretary of State for War and the Colonies)
        1804 removed: Barbary State consuls (to Secretary of State for War and the Colonies)
        1823 added: prisons
        1829 added: police services
        1836 added: registration of births, deaths and marriages in England and Wales
        1844 added: naturalisation
        1845 added: registration of Friendly Societies
        1855 removed: yeomanries and militias (to War Office)
        1858 added: local boards of health
        1871 removed: local boards of health (to Local Government Board)
        1871 removed: registration of births, deaths and marriages (to Local Government Board)
        1872 removed: highways and turnpikes (to Local Government Board)
        1875 added: control of explosives
        1875 removed: registration of Friendly Societies (to Treasury)
        1885 removed: Scotland (to Secretary for Scotland)
        1886 removed: fishing (to Board of Trade)
        1889 removed: Land Commissioners (to Board of Agriculture)
        1900 removed: matters relating to burial grounds (to Local Government Board)
        1905 removed: public housing (to Local Government Board)
        1914 added: dangerous drugs
        1919 removed: aircraft and air traffic (to Air Ministry)
        1919 removed: use of human bodies in medical training (to Ministry of Health)
        1919 removed: infant and child care (to Ministry of Health)
        1919 removed: lunacy and mental health (to Ministry of Health)
        1919 removed: health and safety (to Ministry of Health)
        1920 added: firearms
        1920 removed: Representation of Britain abroad in labour matters (to Ministry of Labour)
        1920 removed: mining (to Mines Department)
        1921 added: elections (from the Ministry of Health)
        1922 removed: relations with Irish Free State (to Colonial Office)
        1923 removed: Order of the British Empire (to Treasury)
        1925 removed: registration of trade unions (to Ministry of Labour)
        1931 removed: county councils (to Ministry of Health)
        1933 added: poisons
        1934 removed: metropolitan boroughs (to Ministry of Health)
        1937 removed: road accident returns (to Ministry of Transport)
        1938 added: fire services
        1938 removed: Imperial Service Order and medal (to Treasury)
        1940 removed: factory inspections (to Ministry of Labour)
        1945 removed: workmen's compensation scheme (to Ministry of National Insurance)
        1947 added: infant and child care (from Ministry of Health)
        1947 removed: regulation of advertisements (to Ministry of Town and Country Planning)
        1947 removed: burial fees (to Ministry of Health)
        1947 removed: registration of Building Societies (to Treasury)
        1948 removed: Broadmoor hospital (to Lunacy Board of Control)
        1950 removed: structural precautions for civil defence (to Ministry of Works)
        1950 removed: minor judicial appointments (to Lord Chancellor)
        1953 removed: slaughterhouses (to Ministry of Housing and Local Government)
        1954 removed: markets (to Ministry of Housing and Local Government)
        1956 removed: railway accidents (to Ministry of Transport and Civil Aviation)
        1969 removed: reservoirs (to Ministry of Housing and Local Government)
        1971 removed: child care in England (to Department of Health and Social Security)
        1971 removed: child care in Wales (to Welsh Office)
        1972 removed: Northern Ireland (to Northern Ireland Office)
        1973 removed: adoption (to Department of Health and Social Security)
        1992 removed: broadcasting and sport (to the new Department of National Heritage - later the Department for Culture, Media and Sport)
        2007 removed: criminal justice, prisons & probation and legal affairs (to new Ministry of Justice)
        2007 added: counter-terrorism strategy (from the Cabinet Office) Home Office Permanent Under Secretaries of State of the Home Office

        Assets Recovery Agency headed by the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State (Crime, Security and Communities)
        Criminal Records Bureau headed by the Minister of State (Criminal Justice and Offender Management)
        Forensic Science Service headed by the Minister of State (Crime, Security and Communities)
        HM Prison Service headed by the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State (Criminal Justice and Offender Management)
        Identity and Passport Service headed by the Minister of State (Immigration and Citizenship)
        Border and Immigration Agency
        Drug Intervention Program Location
        From 1978 to 2004, the Home Office was located in a Brutalist block in Queen Anne's Gate in Westminster designed by Sir Basil Spence, close to St. James's Park tube station. Many functions, however, were devolved to offices in other parts of London and the country, notably the headquarters of the Immigration and Nationality Directorate in Croydon.
        In Spring 2005, the Home Office moved to a new main office designed by architect Sir Terry Farrell at 2 Marsham Street, Westminster, on the site of the demolished Marsham Towers building of the Department of the Environment.[5] The contract to build the new headquarters was a public-private partnership deal intended to last for around 29 years.
        The architect worked with artist Liam Gillick to enhance the facade of the building. The works of art have been cited as key factors in the design awards won by the project. Other artists were commissioned to create works in the public areas around the building -- including Georgie Hopton, Roger Hiorns,Runa Islam, Simon Periton and Gary Webb.






(叶 姣)编辑 徐卫建

Wednesday, November 28, 2007

Origin of Jansenism
In Jansenist thought, human beings were born sinful, and without divine help a human being could never become good. This led the Jansenists to seek to exhibit a high level of piety and moral rectitude, and to prepare carefully through prayer and confession before receiving Communion (hence Jansenists favored less frequent reception). The Jansenist idea of predestination, based on Augustine's writing and close to that of Calvinism, was that only a portion of human beings, the "elect," were destined to be saved. Unlike Calvinism, however, Jansenism lacked a doctrine of assurance, deeming salvation unknowable even to the saved.

Jansenism Jansenist theology
Jansenism was condemned as heretical in several papal bulls, notably by Pope Innocent X, Alexander VII (Ad Sanctam Beati Petri Sedem; Catholic Encyclopedia article) and Clement XI (Unigenitus). Because Jansen himself died before his work was published, and he included statements of submission to the Catholic Church in it, he himself was never formally considered a heretic. The final condemnation of Jansenism was by St. Pius X, who, in contrast to Jansenist reticence over communion, advocated daily communion for Catholics, and communion for children as soon as they could distinguish the sacred Host from ordinary bread. Jansenism was officially outlawed by the Catholic Church in 1712.
In France, King Louis XIV, acting under the pressures of the Jesuits, sought the end of Jansenism. Particularly targeted was the convent of Port-Royal. In a highly symbolic gesture, the convent was razed in 1710 after the last nuns had been forcibly removed.

Papal condemnation
Acceptants were those members of the Jansenism branch of Catholicism who accepted the bull Unigenitus, which opened the final phase of the Jansenist controversy in France and condemned 101 propositions of the French Jansenist theologian Pasquier Quesnel.

Later Developments

Dale K. Van Kley

Tuesday, November 27, 2007

FAA airport diagram for EWR
Newark Liberty International Airport (IATA: EWRICAO: KEWRFAA LID: EWR), first named Newark Airport and later Newark International Airport, is an international airport within the city limits of both Newark and Elizabeth, New Jersey, United States. It is about 15 miles south west of Midtown Manhattan.
The airport is operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which also manages the two other major airports in the New York/New Jersey metropolitan area, John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK) and LaGuardia Airport (LGA), in addition to two smaller airports, Teterboro Airport and the Downtown Manhattan Heliport. Newark is the fifth busiest international air gateway to the United States; JFK ranks first.

Newark Liberty International Airport covers 2,027 acres and has three runways and one helipad:
Most departing traffic use Runway 4L/22R, while most arriving traffic use 04R/22L, and 11/29 is used more often when the crosswinds on the two main runways is strong enough.

Runway 4L/22R: 11,000 x 150 ft. (3,353 x 46 m), Surface: Asphalt/Concrete
Runway 4R/22L: 10,000 x 150 ft. (3,048 x 46 m), Surface: Asphalt
Runway 11/29: 6,800 x 150 ft. (2,073 x 46 m), Surface: Asphalt
Helipad H1: 40 x 40 ft. (12 x 12 m), Surface: Concrete Terminals and destinations
Terminal A is the only terminal at Newark not fitted with immigration facilities: flights arriving from other countries (except countries with US customs preclearance) cannot use Terminal A, although some departing international flights use the terminal.

Air Canada (Toronto-Pearson)

  • Air Canada Jazz (Montréal, Toronto-Pearson)
    AirTran Airways (Atlanta)
    Alaska Airlines (Seattle/Tacoma)
    American Airlines (Chicago-O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Eagle/Vail [seasonal], Los Angeles, Miami, San Juan (PR))

    • AmericanConnection operated by Chautauqua Airlines (St. Louis)
      American Eagle (Raleigh/Durham)
      Continental Airlines (Atlanta, Boston, Chicago-O'Hare, Chicago-Midway, Dallas/Fort Worth, Washington-Reagan)

      • Continental Express operated by ExpressJet Airlines (Boston, Chicago-O'Hare, Chicago-Midway, Washington-Dulles, Washington-Reagan)
        JetBlue Airways (Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Orlando, Tampa, West Palm Beach)
        Midwest Airlines

        • Midwest Connect operated by SkyWest (Milwaukee)
          United Airlines (Chicago-O'Hare, Denver, Los Angeles, San Francisco)

          • United Express operated by Mesa Airlines (Washington-Dulles)
            United Express operated by Trans States Airlines (Washington-Dulles)
            US Airways (Charlotte)

            • US Airways operated by America West Airlines (Las Vegas, Phoenix)
              US Airways Express operated by Air Wisconsin (Charlotte, Pittsburgh)
              US Airways Express operated by Mesa Airlines (Charlotte)
              US Airways Express operated by Republic Airlines (Pittsburgh)
              US Airways Express operated by Trans States Airlines (Pittsburgh) Terminal A

              Air France (Paris-Charles de Gaulle)
              Air India (Mumbai, Paris-Charles de Gaulle)
              Air Jamaica (Montego Bay)
              Alitalia (Milan-Malpensa, Rome-Fiumicino)
              British Airways (London-Heathrow)
              Delta Air Lines (Atlanta, Salt Lake City)

              • Delta Connection operated by Comair (Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky)
                Delta Connection operated by Atlantic Southeast Airlines (Atlanta, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky)
                El Al (Tel Aviv)
                EVA Air (Taipei-Taiwan Taoyuan)
                Jet Airways (Brussels, Mumbai)
                KLM (Amsterdam)
                LOT Polish Airlines (Krakow, Rzeszów, Warsaw)
                L'Avion (Paris-Orly)
                Lufthansa (Frankfurt)

                • Lufthansa operated by PrivatAir (Düsseldorf, Munich)
                  Malaysia Airlines (Kuala Lumpur, Stockholm-Arlanda)
                  Myrtle Beach Direct Air

                  • Myrtle Beach Direct Air operated by Xtra Airways (Myrtle Beach [seasonal])
                    Northwest Airlines (Detroit, Memphis, Minneapolis/St. Paul)
                    Qatar Airways (Doha, Geneva)
                    Scandinavian Airlines System (Copenhagen, Stockholm-Arlanda)
                    Singapore Airlines (Singapore)
                    Silverjet (London-Luton)
                    Swiss International Air Lines

                    • Swiss International Air Lines operated by PrivatAir (Zürich)
                      TAP Portugal (Lisbon, Porto)
                      USA 3000 (Cancún [public charter], Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Punta Cana, St. Petersburg/Clearwater)
                      Virgin Atlantic (London-Heathrow)
                      Voyageur Airways (Mont-Tremblant) [seasonal] Terminal B

                      Continental Airlines (Acapulco [seasonal], Aguadilla, Albuquerque, Amsterdam, Antigua, Aruba, Athens, Austin, Barcelona, Beijing, Belfast-International, Belize City, Berlin-Tegel, Bermuda, Birmingham (UK), Bogotá, Bonaire, Bristol (UK), Brussels, Buffalo, Calgary [seasonal], Cancún, Cleveland, Cologne/Bonn, Columbus, Copenhagen, Cozumel, Daytona Beach, Delhi, Denver, Detroit, Dublin, Eagle/Vail [Seasonal], Edinburgh, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Frankfurt, Geneva, Glasgow-International, Grand Cayman, Guatemala City, Guayaquil, Halifax, Hamburg, Hayden/Steamboat Springs [seasonal], Hong Kong, Honolulu, Houston-Intercontinental, Indianapolis, Jacksonville, Kansas City, Las Vegas, Liberia, Lima, Lisbon, London-Gatwick, Los Angeles, Los Cabos, Madrid, Manchester (UK), Mexico City, Miami, Milan-Malpensa, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Montego Bay, Montrose/Telluride, Mumbai [begins October 1], Myrtle Beach, Nassau, New Orleans, Orange County, Orlando, Oslo, Panama City, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Ponce, Port of Spain, Portland (OR), Providence, Puerto Plata, Puerto Vallarta, Punta Cana, Raleigh/Durham, Roatán [seasonal], Rome-Fiumicino, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), San José (CR), San Juan, San Pedro Sula, San Salvador, Santiago (DR), Santo Domingo, São Paulo-Guarulhos, Sarasota, Seattle/Tacoma, Shanghai-Pudong [begins in 2009; Pending gov't approval], Shannon, St. Maarten, St. Thomas, Stockholm-Arlanda, Tampa, Tel Aviv, Tokyo-Narita, Toronto-Pearson, Tucson, Vancouver, West Palm Beach, Willemstad, Zürich)

                      • Continental Express operated by ExpressJet Airlines (Albany, Asheville, Baltimore/Washington, Bangor, Birmingham (AL), Buffalo, Burlington, Charleston (SC), Charlotte, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, Columbia, Columbus, Dayton, Detroit, Fayetteville (AR), Grand Rapids, Greensboro, Greenville (SC), Halifax, Hartford, Indianapolis, Jackson (MS) [begins September 5], Jacksonville, Kansas City, Knoxville, Lexington, Little Rock, Louisville, Madison, Manchester (NH), Memphis, Milwaukee, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Moncton, Montréal, Mont-Tremblant [seasonal; begins December 14], Nantucket [seasonal], Nashville, Norfolk, Oklahoma City, Omaha, Ottawa, Pittsburgh, Portland (ME), Providence, Québec City, Raleigh/Durham, Richmond, Rochester (NY), Sarasota, Savannah, St. John's, St. Louis, Syracuse, Toronto-Pearson, Tulsa)
                        US Helicopter Gate C71 (Downtown Manhattan Heliport, East 34th St. Heliport, New York-JFK) Terminal C

                        Newark Liberty International Airport Ground transportation

                        Main article: AirTrain Newark AirTrain
                        Numerous bus services run between Newark Liberty and nearby population centers, including New Jersey Transit, Airporter, and Olympia Trails. Express buses to Manhattan transit hubs (Grand Central Terminal, Port Authority Bus Terminal, etc.) cost $14 (round trip $25). There is also bus service to JFK Airport, which costs $24.
                        The airport is also served by a number of New Jersey Transit buses. Routes 40 and 62 provide local service from downtown Newark, including Newark Penn Station, at a fare of $1.35, the former from the North Area, and the latter from the passenger terminals. Route 37 provides service to the airport from Newark and Irvington, and Route 67 provides local service from Lakewood and Toms River.
                        The New Jersey Turnpike has 2 exits that allow motorists to gain access to Newark Liberty International Airport. Those exits are 13A and 14.
                        Taxis also operate from the airport at flat rates based on destination. From the City of New York, fares are set by New York City's Taxi and Limousine Commission. From New York City, the taxi fare shall be the metered rate plus a surcharge of $15.00 plus the cost of round trip tolls. This is approximately $40 to $75 depending on the exact origin. Newark Liberty is the only exception to the rule that a New York City taxi driver may refuse to take a passenger to any destination outside the five boroughs.
                        From Newark Airport to Manhattan, the taxi fare is a set fee plus round trip tolls. From Newark Airport to
                        There is an additional charge of $5.00 for all destinations on the east side of Manhattan between Battery Park and 185th Street.
                        Continental Airlines also books passengers via bus to Lehigh Valley International Airport in Allentown, Pennsylvania, a 90-minute trip.

                        Battery Park to West 34th Street: $50.00
                        West 35th Street to West 58th Street: $55.00
                        West 59th Street to West 109th Street: $60.00
                        West 110th Street to West 185th Street: $65.00
                        North of 185th Street: $70.00
                        New York/LaGuardia Airport: $87.00
                        New York/Kennedy Airport: $85.00 Airport information

                        John F. Kennedy International Airport
                        LaGuardia Airport
                        Teterboro Airport
                        Transportation to New York City area airports

Monday, November 26, 2007

Archduke Ernest of Austria
Archduke Ernest of Austria (born July 15, 1553 in Vienna, died February 12, 1595 in Brussels) was a son of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria of Spain. In German he is Ernst von Österreich.
He was educated with his brother Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, in the court of Spain. In 1573 and 1587, he was a candidate for the throne of Poland. From 1576 onwards, he was governor in the Archduchy of Austria, where he promoted the counterreformation. In 1590, he became governor of Inner Austria, and from 1594 to 1595 in the Spanish Netherlands.

Sunday, November 25, 2007

Mauritania (Arabic: موريتانيا Mūrītāniyā), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in northwest Africa. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean on the west, by Senegal on the southwest, by Mali on the east and southeast, by Algeria on the northeast, and by the Moroccan-annexed territory of Western Sahara on the northwest. It is named after the ancient Berber kingdom of Mauretania. The capital and largest city is Nouakchott, located on the Atlantic coast.


Main article: Politics of Mauritania Politics
After independence, President Moktar Ould Daddah, originally installed by the French, formalized Mauritania into a one-party state in 1964 with a new constitution, which set up an authoritarian presidential regime. Daddah's own Parti du Peuple Mauritanien (PPM) became the ruling organization in a single-party system. The President justified this decision on the grounds that he considered Mauritania unready for western-style multi-party democracy. Under this one-party constitution, Daddah was reelected in uncontested elections in 1966, 1971 and 1976. He was ousted in a bloodless coup on July 10, 1978, after bringing the country to near-collapse through a disastrous war to annex the southern part of Western Sahara, in an attempt to create a "Greater Mauritania".

The Ould Daddah era (1960-78)
Col. Mustafa Ould Salek's CMRN junta proved incapable of either establishing a strong base of power or extracting the country from its destabilizing conflict with the Sahrawi resistance movement, the Polisario Front. It quickly fell to be replaced by another military government, the CMSN. The energetic Col. Mohamed Khouna Ould Haidallah soon emerged as its main strongman, and by giving up all claims to Western Sahara he found peace with the Polisario, and improved relations with its main backer, Algeria - but relations with the other party to the conflict, Morocco, and its European ally France, deteriorated. Instability continued, and Haidallah's ambitious reform attempts foundered. His regime was plagued by attempted coups and intrigue within the military establishment; in 1984, finally, he was deposed by Col. Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya.

CMRN and CMSN military governments (1978-84)
The Parti Républicain Démocratique et Social (PRDS), formerly led by President Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya, dominated Mauritanian politics following the country's first multi-party elections in April 1992 following the approval by referendum of the current constitution in July 1991. President Taya, who won elections in 1992 and 1997, first became chief of state through a December 12, 1984 bloodless coup which made him chairman of the committee of military officers that governed Mauritania from July 1978 to April 1992.
Political parties, illegal during the military period, were legalized again in 1991. By April 1992, as civilian rule returned, 16 major political parties had been recognized; 12 major political parties were active in 2004. Most opposition parties boycotted the first legislative election in 1992, and for nearly a decade the parliament was dominated by the PRDS. The opposition participated in municipal elections in January-February 1994 and subsequent Senate elections, most recently in April 2004, gained representation at the local level as well as three seats in the Senate.
Mauritania's presidential election, its third since adopting the democratic process in 1992, took place on November 7, 2003. Six candidates, including Mauritania's first female and first Haratine (former slave family) candidates, represented a wide variety of political goals and backgrounds. Incumbent President Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya won reelection with 67.02% of the popular vote, according to the official figures, with Mohamed Khouna Ould Haidalla finishing second.
Sid'Ahmed Taya recognized Israel (see Foreign relations of Mauritania), which made Mauritania the only Arab country not neighbouring Israel which recognized the latter (Morocco and Qatar have official ties with Israel, but do not fully recognize it). He also started cooperating with the United States in antiterrorism activities, which was criticized by human rights NGOs, who talked of an exaggeration and instrumentation of alleged terrorist activities for geopolitical aims.[3][4]
A group of current and former Army officers launched a bloody but unsuccessful coup attempt on June 8, 2003. The leaders of the attempted coup were never caught.

Ould Taya's rule (1984-2005)
On 3 August 2005, a military coup led by Colonel Ely Ould Mohamed Vall ended Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya's twenty-one years of strong-arm rule.
On August 3, the Mauritanian military, including members of the presidential guard, seized control of key points in the capital of Nouakchott. They took advantage of President Taya's attendance at the funeral of Saudi King Fahd to organize the coup, which took place without loss of life. The officers, calling themselves the Military Council for Justice and Democracy, released the following statement:
The national armed forces and security forces have unanimously decided to put a definitive end to the oppressive activities of the defunct authority, which our people have suffered from during the past years. (BBC)
The Military Council later issued another statement naming Colonel Vall as president and director of the national police force, the Sûreté Nationale. Sixteen other officers were listed as members. Colonel Vall was once regarded as a firm ally of the now-ousted president Sid'Ahmed Taya, even aiding him in the original coup that brought him to power, and later serving as his security chief.
Applauded by the Mauritanian people, but cautiously watched by the international community, the coup has since been generally accepted, while the military junta has organized elections within the promised two year timeline. In a referendum on 26 June 2006, Mauritanians overwhelmingly (97%) approved a new constitution which limited the duration of a president's stay in office. The leader of the junta, Col. Vall, promised to abide by the referendum and relinquish power peacefully. Mauritania's establishment of relations with the State of Israel - it is one of only four Arab states to recognize Israel - was maintained by the new regime, despite widespread criticism from the opposition, who viewed it as a legacy of the Taya regime's attempts to curry favor with the West.
Parliamentary and municipal elections in Mauritania took place on 19 November and 3 December 2006.

August 2005 military coup
The first fully democratic Presidential election since 1960 occurred on 11 March 2007. The election is the final transfer from military to civilian rule following the military coup in 2005. This is the first time the president will have been selected by ballot in the country's history.
The election was won by Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi.

2007 Presidential election

Main articles: Regions of Mauritania and Departments of Mauritania Geography

Main article: Economy of Mauritania Economy
In February 2006, the Mauritanian government denounced amendments to an oil contract made by former leader Maaouiya Ould Taya with Woodside Petroleum, an Australian company. In 2004, Woodside had agreed to invest $US 600 million in developing Mauritania's Chinguetti offshore oil project. The controversial amendments, which Mauritanian authorities declared had been signed "outside the legal framework of normal practice, to the great detriment of our country", could cost Mauritania up to $200 million a year, according to BBC News. Signed by Woodside two weeks after the February 1, 2005 legislation authorizing the four amendments, they provided for a lower state quota in the profit-oil, and reduced taxes by 15 percent in certain zones. They also eased environmental constraints, and extended the length and scope of the exploitation and exploration monopoly, among other measures.
The disputed amendments were signed by former oil minister Zeidane Ould Hmeida in February 2004 and March 2005. Hmeida was arrested in January 2006 on charges of "serious crimes against the country's essential economic interests".
Nouakchott's authorities declared that the government would likely seek international arbitration, which Woodside (which operated for Hardman, BG Group, Premier, ROC Oil, Fusion, Petronas, Dana Petroleum, Energy Africa and the Hydrocarbons Mauritanian Society) also contemplated.
Discovered in 2001, Chinguetti has proven reserves of about 120 million barrels of oil. At the end of December 2005, authorities estimated that in 2006, the oil profits would be 47 billion ouguiyas (about US$180 million) and represent a quarter of the state budget, according to RFI.
The Australian Federal Police are currently investigating Woodside for allegations of bribery and corruption in Mauritania (according to the Sydney Morning Herald [6] [7]).

Dispute with Woodside Petroleum

Main article: Demographics of MauritaniaMauritania Demographics

Music of Mauritania
Modern day slavery [8]
Islam in Mauritania
Status of religious freedom in Mauritania
Mauritania and Madagascar are the only two countries in the world not to use decimal-based currency. The basic unit of currency, the ouguiya, comprises five khoums. See also

Saturday, November 24, 2007

A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. The term resistance has political overtones, as people have used it, along with similar terms, to bring support to opposition groups.
Organizations and individuals critical of foreign intervention and supporting forms of organized movement (particularly where citizens are affected) tend to favor the term. When such a resistance movement uses violence, those favorably disposed to it may also speak of freedom fighters. Both phrases -- resistance movement and freedom fighters -- can become contentious terms for what other observers might describe as terrorists, though this is controversial as terrorists are often criticised and seen as morally wrong, whereas many see Resistance Movements as legitimate. The popular saying "One person's terrorist is another person's freedom fighter" encapsulates this dichotomy, without clarifying the distinction that freedom fighters must, by definition, be fighting for freedom. Terrorists, as a modern appellation, are not seen as fighting for freedom, whereas Resistance Movements are. Thus, Resistance Movements may employ terror tactics, but not all who use terror tactics are correctly called a Resistance movement.

According to Joint Publication 1-02, The United States Department of Defense defines a resistance movement as: An organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to resist the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.
In strict military terminology, a resistance movement is simply that; it seeks to resist (change) the policies of a government or occupying power. This may be accomplished though violent or non-violent means. It must be noted that a resistance movement is specifically limited to changing the nature of current power, not to overthrow it. The correct military term for removing or overthrowing a government is an insurgency.

US government definition

Examples of resistance movements
Resistance movement
Algerian resistance
Armenian resistance
Basque separatists (ongoing)
Black Panther Party
Bosnian Resistance
Chechen separatists (ongoing)
Colombian communist resistance (ongoing)
Cuban anti-Batista resistance
Cuban anti-Castro resistance (ongoing)
Czechoslovakian resistance
Greek resistance
Environmentalist resistance (ongoing)
Hungarian Uprising
Human rights resistance (ongoing)
Indian Independence movement
Iraqi insurgency (ongoing)
Irish Republicanism in particular (ongoing)
Jewish Zionist resistance to British occupation in Mandate Palestine
Khalistan (ongoing)
Kurdish separatism (ongoing)
Lebanese Islamic Resistance (ongoing)
Militant Islam (ongoing)
National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam
New Black panthers (ongoing)
Polish resistance
Palestinian Resistance (ongoing)
Romanian anti-communist resistance movement
Somali Popular Resistance Movement in the Land of the Two Migrations (ongoing)
Tamil Tigers (ongoing)
Tibetan resistance movement
South Thailand insurgency (ongoing)
Sudanese resistance (ongoing)
Viet Minh
West Sahara Independence Intifada (ongoing)
Ulster Loyalism (ongoing)
Zapatistas (ongoing) post-World War II
See also Resistance during World War II
Planned resistance movements:

Albanian resistance movement
Austrian resistance movement (O5)
Belgian resistance movement
Bulgarian resistance movement
Burmese resistance movement
Czech Resistance movement
Chinese resistance movements

  • Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army
    Anti-Japanese Army For The Salvation Of The Country
    Chinese People's National Salvation Army
    Heilungkiang National Salvation Army
    Jilin Self-Defence Army
    Northeast Anti-Japanese National Salvation Army
    Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army
    Northeast People's Anti-Japanese Volunteer Army
    Northeastern Loyal and Brave Army
    Northeastern People's Revolutionary Army
    Northeastern Volunteer Righteous & Brave Fighters
    Hong Kong resistance movements
    Gangjiu dadui (Hong Kong-Kowloon big army)
    Dongjiang Guerillas (East River Guerillas, Southern China and Hong Kong organisation)
    Danish resistance movement
    Dutch resistance movement
    Estonian resistance movement
    French resistance movement in World War II, including the

    • Maquis
      German resistance movements

      • The White Rose
        The Red Orchestra
        Greek resistance movement
        Italian resistance movement
        Jewish resistance movement, including Jewish partisans and Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee
        Latvian resistance movement
        Lithuanian resistance during World War II
        Lithuanian, Latvian, and Estonian ("Forest brothers") resistance movements during the Soviet invasion and occupation of the Baltic countries (continued after the end of WWII).
        Norwegian resistance movement
        Philippine resistance movement -- the anti-Japanese phase of the Huk movement
        Polish Secret State and resistance organizations:

        • Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), Polish underground army in World War II (400 000 sworn members)
          Narodowe Siły Zbrojne
          Bataliony Chłopskie
          Gwardia Ludowa (the Peoples' Guard) and Armia Ludowa (the Peoples' Army)
          Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ZOB, the Jewish Fighting Organisation), Jewish resistance movement that led the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943
          Zydowski Zwiazek Walki (ZZW, the Jewish Fighting Union), Jewish resistance movement that led the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943
          Slovak resistance movement
          Soviet resistance movement of Soviet partisans and underground which had Moscow-organized and spontaneously formed cells opposing German occupation.
          Thai resistance movement
          Ukrainian Insurgent Army - fought the Poles, the Germans and the Soviets.
          Yugoslav resistance movements:

          • People's Liberation Army – the partisans
            Yugoslav Royal Army in the Fatherland – Chetniks
            The Auxiliary Units, organized by Colonel Colin Gubbins as a potential British resistance movement against a possible invasion of the British Isles by Nazi forces, note that it was the only resistance movement established prior to invasion, albeit the invasion never came. World War II

            Irish Republican Army
            The Rising of East Karelians (1921-1922)
            Lwów Eaglets
            Non-Cooperation Movement (1919-1939)
            Filipino guerilla units after official end of Philippine-American War (1902-1913)
            Pancho Villa led a resistance movement/rebellion in Mexico in the early 20th century, as did the Zapata brothers.
            Bolshevik Revolution (1917-1922) Pre-World War II

            Carbonari - 19th century Italian movement resisting Austrian or Bourbon rule.
            Sons of Liberty - Revolutionary patriot group that embraced Republicanism in the United States during the 1760's and 1770's and routinely engaged in acts of violent resistance against British government officials and prominent loyalist sympathizers. The Boston branch of the Sons of Liberty met under the Liberty Tree, from which they would post messages or hang and burn effigies of their enemies.
            The Underground Railroad - The pre American Civil War slave escape network consisting of volunteers who were dedicated to secretly helping escaping slave reach free states or Canada. Pre-20th century

Friday, November 23, 2007

The Athens Concert Hall (Greek: "Μέγαρο Μουσικής Αθηνών" Megaro Moussikis Athinon) is a concert hall located in Athens on Vassilissis Sofias Avenue which first opened in 1991 with two halls. The Hall has optimum facilities for opera performances, and some operas are presented every season.
The Megaro Moussikis station of the Athens Metro is just outside the Hall, on Line 3.

Athens Concert Hall Performance venues and other facilities
In 2004 the International Conference Centre opened at the Athens Concert Hall, adding the

Friends of Music Hall has a capacity of 1,961, and is used for concerts and recitals. It also holds the biggest pipe organ in Greece, with 6,080 pipes and was constructed by Klais Orgelbau.
Dimitris Mitropoulos Hall (named after the conductor, Dimitris Mitropoulos) has a capacity of 494 and is usually used for Chamber Music and dance performances.
Alexandra Trianti Hall has a capacity of 1,750 and is used for operas, ballet and other musical performances, and a smaller hall for concerts and conferences.
Musical library was also established which now incorporates 80,000 titles and multimedia resources.

Thursday, November 22, 2007


Members of Parliament

Halifax (UK Parliament constituency) 1832-1918
Representation reduced to one member, 1918


Election results

Elections in the 1910s
John Henry Whitley (Speaker) returned unopposed
John Henry Whitley (Speaker) returned unopposed
John Henry Whitley (Speaker) returned unopposed

Elections in the 1920s

Elections in the 1930s

Elections in the 1940s

Elections in the 1950s

Elections in the 1960s

Elections in the 1970s

Elections in the 1980s

Elections in the 2000s
The parliamentary borough returns two members. The county borough was created in 1888. The municipal borough was under a mayor, 5 aldermen and 45 councillors. Area, 13,967 acres.
At the time of the Norman Conquest, Halifax formed part of the extensive manor of Wakefield, which belonged to the king, but in the 13th century was in the hands of John, earl Warrenne (c. 12451305). The prosperity of the town began with the introduction of the cloth trade in the 15th century, when there are said to have been only thirteen houses, which before the end of the 16th century had increased to 520. Camden, about the end of the 17th century, wrote that the people are very industrious, so that though the soil about it be barren and improfitable, not fit to live on, they have so flourished ... by the clothing trade that they are very rich and have gained a reputation for it above their neighbors. The trade is said to have been increased by the arrival of certain merchants driven from the Netherlands by the persecution of the duke of Alva.
Among the curious customs of Halifax was the Gibbet Law, which was probably established by a prescriptive right to protect the wool trade, and gave the inhabitants the power of executing any one taken within their liberty, who, when tried by a jury of sixteen of the frith-burgesses, was found guilty of the theft of any goods of the value of more than 13d. The executions took place on market days on a hill outside the town, the gibbet somewhat resembling a guillotine. The first execution recorded under this law took place in 1541, and the right was exercised in Halifax longer than in any other town, the last execution taking place in 1650.
In 1635 the king granted the inhabitants of Halifax licence to found a workhouse in a large house given. to them for that purpose by Nathaniel Waterhouse, and incorporated them under the name of the master and governors. Nathaniel Waterhouse was appointed the first master, his successors being elected every year by the twelve governors from among themselves. Halifax was a borough by prescription, its privileges growing up with the increased prosperity brought by the cloth trade, but it was not incorporated until 1848. Since the Reform Act of 1832 the burgesses have returned two members to parliament. In 1607 David Waterhouse, lord of the manor of Halifax, obtained a grant of two markets there every week on Friday and Saturday and two fairs every year, each lasting three days, one beginning on the 24th of June, the other on the 11th of November. Later these fairs and markets were confirmed with the addition of an extra market on Thursday to Sir William Ayloffe, baronet, who had succeeded David Waterhouse as lord of the manor. The market rights were sold to the Markets Company in 1810 and purchased from them by the corporation in 1853.
During the Civil War Halifax was garrisoned by parliament, and a field near it is still called the Bloody Field on account of an engagement which took place there between the forces of parliament and the Royalists.

Tuesday, November 20, 2007

Donald Sellers
Donald Ray Sellers (December 30, 1974-February 11, 2001) was an American football player, playing professionally at wide receiver for the Scottish Claymores of NFL Europe.
Sellers attended Ellison High School in Killeen, Texas and was a two-year letterman in football, basketball, and baseball. He also played at University of New Mexico as a quarterback.
Sellers died in a car crash on February 11, 2001 after losing control of his vehicle outside Wickenburg, Arizona and hitting an oncoming car.

Monday, November 19, 2007

Henry Mortensen is an actor who had a small cameo role in The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers.
He is the son of actor Viggo Mortensen and Exene Cervenka.

Henry Mortensen (actor) Filmography

The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (2002): Reluctant Rohan Child Warrior (uncredited)
Crimson Tide (1995): Henry Ince
Blue Tiger (1994): Darin Hayes
Floundering (1994): Homeless Child

Sunday, November 18, 2007

Fruti Kola
Fruti Kola is a Peruvian cola produced by Industrias & Derivados del Sur in Ayacucho. The cola is sold in PET bottles of 630 ml.

Saturday, November 17, 2007

The Colorado Rockies are a Major League Baseball team based in Denver, Colorado. They are in the Western Division of the National League. The team is named after the Rocky Mountains which pass through Colorado. They play their home games at Coors Field.

National League (1993–present)

  • West Division (1993–present)
    Colorado Rockies (1993–present)
    The Rocks, The Rox, Blake Street Bombers, Blake Street Bullies
    Coors Field (1995–present)
    Mile High Stadium (1993-1994) History
    After failed attempts going back as far as the 1880s, by the early 1990s a major league baseball team seemed a possibility in Denver. The Colorado Baseball Commission, led by banking executive Larry Varnell, was successful in getting Denver voters to approve a 0.1 percent sales tax to help finance a new baseball stadium. Also, an advisory committee was formed in 1990 by then-Governor of Colorado Roy Romer to recruit an ownership group. The group selected was led by John Antonucci, an Ohio beverage distributor, and Michael I. Monus, the head of the Phar-Mor drugstore chain. Local and regional companies such as Erie Lake, Hensel Phelps Construction, KOA Radio and the Rocky Mountain News rounded out the group. On July 5, 1991, the National League approved Denver and Miami, Florida as the sites for two expansion teams to begin play in 1993. [4]
    The Rockies joined the National League in 1993, along with the Miami franchise, the Florida Marlins. The Rockies' first pick in the expansion draft was pitcher David Nied from the Atlanta Braves organization. Nied pitched 4 seasons for the Rockies. The team's first home at-bat was a memorable one, as lead off batter Eric Young hit a home run for the Rockies.

    Creation of the Rockies
    The first game in Rockies history was played on April 5, 1993, against the New York Mets at Shea Stadium. David Nied was the starting pitcher in a game the Rockies lost, 3-0. The franchise's first home game at Mile High Stadium came four days later, an 11-4 win over the Montreal Expos, before more than 80,000 fans, to date the largest crowd to see a Major League Baseball game. This was also the first win in franchise history.
    As is the case with many expansion teams, the Rockies struggled in their first year of existence. During one stretch in May, the team went 2-17. The team did not experience its first winning month until September, when they went 17-9. Still, the team finished the season with 67 wins, setting a record for a National League expansion franchise. In addition, despite the losses, the club saw a home attendance of 4,483,350 for the season, setting a Major League record that stands to this day. Rockies first baseman Andrés Galarraga won the batting title after hitting .370 for the season after Manager Don Baylor convinced Galarraga to change from a standard batting stance into an open one in which he squarely faced the pitcher, allowing him to see incoming pitches properly.

    Ownership issues
    On April 17, 1994, the Rockies beat Montreal 6-5, moving the team's record to 6-5 — the first time in franchise history that the club had a winning record. However, that would be the only time during that season that the club would have a record over .500, finishing at 53-64 and in last place in the National League West in the strike-shortened season. Despite the club's poor record, several Rockies hitters gained notoriety for their exploits at the plate, assisted by the thin air of Denver which allows balls to carry farther than they would at sea-level ballparks. Andres Galarraga, a year after winning the batting title, hit 31 homers, and teammate Dante Bichette hit 27; projected over a 162-game season, the two would have hit 43 and 37 homers, respectively. The park's characteristics did not affect just home runs either: 33-year-old outfielder Mike Kingery, a career .252 hitter who did not play in the majors in 1993, batted .349 in 301 at bats. The club once again led the majors in attendance, drawing 3,281,511 fans for the season.
    Prior to the 1995 season, the Rockies acquired free agent outfielder Larry Walker, previously of the Montreal Expos. He would form the group known as the "Blake Street Bombers" — named after the street on which new ballpark Coors Field was located — along with Galarraga, Bichette, and third baseman Vinny Castilla, who had played sparingly with the major league club the prior season. The quartet combined to hit 139 homers in the 1995 season, with Bichette leading the way with 40 (45 projected over a 162-game season.) The team debuted in its new ballpark on April 26, 1995, in an 11-9 win over the New York Mets, and proceeded to win seven of their first eight games in the new season. The season ended with a 77-67 record, good for second place in the West division and the club's first (and so far only) playoff appearance as the Wild Card winner. Although much of the attention focused on the power-hitting lineup, much of the club's success was due to a strong bullpen, as relievers Darren Holmes, Curt Leskanic, Steve Reed, and Bruce Ruffin all posted earned run averages below 3.40. The pitching staff's ERA of 4.97 was the lowest in club history until the 2006 team had a 4.66 ERA. The Rockies lost in the NLDS to the Atlanta Braves, 3 games to 1. The Rockies once again led the league in attendance for the season.
    In 1996, with all four Blake Street Bombers returning, the Rockies expected to contend, but an injury to Walker hurt the team. Walker played in only 83 games and batted .276 with 18 homers. However, outfielder Ellis Burks picked up the slack with an All-Star season, batting .344 with 40 homers and 128 RBI — one of three Rockies to hit forty or more homers that season, along with Galarraga and Castilla. The team set a major league record by scoring 658 runs at home on the season, and Burks and Bichette became the first pair of teammates since the 1987 New York Mets to both steal 30 bases and hit 30 homers in the same season. However, the pitching staff — a strong point for the team in 1995 — was beset by injuries; Bill Swift, who went 9-3 in 1995, started just three games, and the staff ERA ballooned to 5.60. As a result, the Rockies fell back to third place in the West with an 83-79 record.
    A healthy Walker became the first player in club history to win the NL Most Valuable Player award in 1997, batting .366 with 49 homers and 130 RBI. Walker came very close to winning the Triple Crown that year, leading the league in home runs but finishing second to Tony Gwynn in batting average and third in RBI (teammate Galarraga led the league.) Once again, three Rockies (Walker, Galarraga, and Castilla) hit 40 or more homers; Walker also won the first Gold Glove in franchise history. As in 1996, though, the team's pitchers struggled in the high altitude and had a 5.25 ERA, and the Rockies could not improve upon their finish from the previous season.

    The mid-1990s and the Blake Street Bombers
    The Blake Street Bombers were broken up after the 1997 season when an aging Galarraga signed with the Atlanta Braves as a free agent. His replacement was Todd Helton, who had been the club's first-round draft pick in 1995 out of the University of Tennessee. After a 4-1 start, the club lost its next eight games and struggled to a 77-85 record, finishing only ahead of the expansion Arizona Diamondbacks in the NL West. Pitcher Darryl Kile, signed as a free agent in the offseason, struggled in Colorado, going 13-17 with a 5.20 ERA -- a far cry from his numbers the prior year as a member of the Houston Astros, when he went 19-7 with a 2.57 ERA. Kile would become one of a long line of free agent pitchers who struggled after signing with the Rockies. The team's struggles led to the firing of manager Don Baylor, the only manager in franchise history, following the season.
    Jim Leyland, a two-time NL Manager of the Year who had won the World Series with the Florida Marlins two years earlier, was expected to bring the Rockies back into contention in 1999. Instead, the Rockies dropped even further, finishing 72-90 and in last place in the West as the Diamondbacks won the division in just their second year of existence. Helton was blossoming into a star, batting .320 with 35 homers and 113 RBI; Castilla, Walker, and Bichette also hit more than 30 homers each. Once again, though, the team's pitching was a glaring weakness, as the staff had an ERA of 6.02. Kile, who was being paid over $8 million for the season, struggled mightily, going 8-13 with a 6.61 ERA, and he wound up being traded to the St. Louis Cardinals following the season. Interestingly, Kile would go on to finish fifth in voting for the Cy Young Award the following year, as he had in 1997 (the year before he joined the Rockies.) Kile's performance before and after joining the Rockies, compared with his performance while with the team, was yet another piece of evidence that the extreme conditions in Colorado made it virtually impossible for a pitcher to succeed with the Rockies. The Leyland era lasted just one year as a frustrated Leyland retired following the season, not to manage in the majors again until 2006.
    In 1999, the Rockies made history as they played their Opening Day game against the San Diego Padres in Monterrey, Mexico; this was the first time that an MLB team opened its regular-season schedule outside the United States or Canada.

    The beginning of the Helton era
    On August 20, 1999, Bob Gebhard, the only general manager in franchise history, announced his resignation. A month later, the Rockies named Dan O'Dowd as his replacement. After hiring Buddy Bell as the club's third manager, O'Dowd proceeded to make a series of offseason deals that would change the face of the franchise. Popular outfielder Dante Bichette was traded to the Cincinnati Reds. Later, he traded Kile to the Cardinals and, in a four-team trade, sent Vinny Castilla to the Tampa Bay Devil Rays. With those two deals, Larry Walker remained as the only player from the Blake Street Bombers still with the team. Walker wound up playing in only 87 games in 2000 due to injuries and hit just nine homers, as the Rockies had a completely different look from prior years. Perhaps not surprisingly given the injury to Walker and the trading of two of the team's most popular players, the Rockies finished third in the National League in attendance in 2000, marking the first time in club history that it did not lead the league in attendance.
    Despite the major changes made to the team in the offseason, the team wound up with its first winning season since 1997. Helton, in his third full year in the majors, was becoming a bona fide superstar, winning the batting title with a .372 average and also leading the league with 147 RBI while hitting 42 homers. However, he finished just fifth in MVP voting, perhaps due to the fact that the team finished fourth in the division and also possibly due to bias by voters due to the fact that he played half of his games in hitter-friendly Coors Field. 2000 also marked the first of five consecutive All-Star Game appearances for Helton. The pitching staff also improved its ERA to 5.26, helping the team to an 82-80 record.
    Although previous big-name pitchers, including Bill Swift, Bret Saberhagen, and Darryl Kile, had struggled in Colorado, following the 2000 season O'Dowd made two very splashy signings in the free-agent market, signing Denny Neagle to a five-year contract worth $51 million, followed five days later by signing Mike Hampton to an eight-year, $121 million contract. Two years earlier, Hampton had won 22 games and finished second in voting for the Cy Young Award as a member of the Houston Astros, while Neagle had been a 20-game winner in 1997 for the Atlanta Braves and had won fifteen games in 2000. The two star pitchers were expected by the Rockies to change the team's fortunes.
    Instead, the two flopped, much as their predecessors had. Hampton, after a strong first half in 2001, completely fell apart in 2002, going 7-15 with a 6.15 ERA and demanding a trade following the season. Neagle went 19-23 in three years with the Rockies; he was injured in 2003 and never pitched in the majors again before the Rockies released him after the 2004 season. The Rockies went 73-89 in both years that Hampton and Neagle were in Colorado, and the amount of money owed them (the Rockies paid a sizable portion of Hampton's salary even after he was traded to the Atlanta Braves) crippled the team for the next several years.
    Under previous general manager Gebhard, the Rockies had largely neglected their farm system and mostly relied on signing veteran free agents from other clubs; this was possible due to the high attendance numbers in the club's first few years of attendance. However, as attendance began to dwindle -- the Rockies fell to just sixth in the National League in attendance in 2002, and ninth in 2003 and 2004 -- the club could no longer afford to build through big-name free agents. In 1999, the Rockies spent their first-round draft pick on Baylor University pitcher Jason Jennings; three years later, Jennings went 16-8 with a 4.52 ERA. In the process, Jennings became the first Rockies player to win the National League Rookie of the Year award.
    With Hampton out of town and Neagle injured much of the year, Jennings became the centerpiece of the Rockies' pitching staff in 2003. Despite a fourth straight All-Star season by Helton and 36 homers by outfielder Preston Wilson, acquired in the Hampton trade, the Rockies finished just 74-88. In addition to Jennings, though, young pitchers Shawn Chacon and Aaron Cook showed promise.
    In 2004, the Rockies acquired Vinny Castilla, who had been with the club for its inaugural 1993 season, once again, and he hit 35 homers. However, Wilson and Larry Walker spent much of the season on the disabled list, forcing the Rockies to play Matt Holliday, who had been slated to start the season at Triple-A. While the Rockies struggled to a 68-94 record -- the second worst record in club history -- the club's Triple-A affiliate, the Colorado Springs Sky Sox, went 78-65. Declining attendance meant that the club's payroll could no longer support a franchise stocked largely with veterans from other clubs. In addition, Walker, who had been with the team since 1995 and was widely regarded as the best player in team history, was now 37 years old, and injuries prevented him from playing much of the time. Because he could still be useful to a contending team, the Rockies traded him to the St. Louis Cardinals in August for three minor-leaguers.

    The Dan O'Dowd era
    The trade of Walker set in motion a series of moves that would lead to a complete overhaul of the club's roster. Castilla and Jeromy Burnitz, who led the team with 37 homers in 2004, were allowed to leave as free agents following the season. Catcher Charles Johnson, who had been acquired along with Wilson in the Hampton trade, was traded to the Boston Red Sox. Royce Clayton, the club's starting shortstop in 2004, also was allowed to leave. Along with Holliday, who had performed ably while Wilson and Walker were out, the club promoted Garrett Atkins, Brad Hawpe, Clint Barmes, and J.D. Closser, who spent most of 2004 in Triple-A. Jennings and Chacon combined with Joe Kennedy, Byung-Hyun Kim, and top prospect Jeff Francis to form the team's starting rotation. Other than Helton and Wilson, virtually all of the team's regular players were under the age of 30; the Rockies dubbed this group "Generation-R."
    The result of all the moves was a 67-95 record in 2005, which tied for the worst record in franchise history, as the young players -- many of whom had never been everyday players in the majors prior to that season -- struggled. Helton and Wilson -- virtually the only experienced players on the team -- struggled as well; Helton hit just 20 homers, the fewest of his career, and missed the All-Star Game for the first time since 1999 and also went on the disabled list for the first time in his career. Wilson also spent time on the disabled list and, as the Rockies fell out of contention, was traded to the Washington Nationals. After starting the season 15-35, though, the team had some success later in the year, going a respectable 30-28 in August and September as the youngsters became more experienced. However, perhaps because of the trade of Walker and several consecutive losing seasons, the team fell all the way to fourteenth in the National League in attendance; for the first time in team history, the Rockies drew under 2 million fans for the season.
    The 2006 season started with some promise; the Rockies were 44-43 in the first half of the season and were in contention in the NL West for much of the season. However, the team faded in the second half and wound up at 76-86, tied for fourth place in the division. Despite this, several of the young players showed promise. Matt Holliday hit 34 homers and was named to the All-Star Game; Garrett Atkins batted .329 and hit 29 homers. In addition, the pitching staff posted a 4.66 ERA -- the best in team history -- and starters Jason Jennings, Aaron Cook, and Jeff Francis had good seasons.
    On July 4, 2007, the Rockies completed a three-game home sweep of the New York Mets, becoming the first team in major league history to sweep the New York Yankees and the New York Mets in the same season. The Rockies had swept the visiting Yankees two weeks earlier, winning all three games at home June 19-21, 2007.

    Following the 2006 season, Jennings was traded to the Houston Astros for outfielder Willy Taveras and pitchers Jason Hirsh and Taylor Buchholz; Jennings had been the winningest pitcher in Rockies history. In January 2007, rumors surfaced that the Rockies were going to trade Todd Helton, the face of the franchise since Larry Walker was traded and arguably the best player in team history, but after negotiations with the Boston Red Sox apparently failed, the team decided to keep Helton.

    The future
    At 5,280 feet above sea level, Denver is by far the highest city with a Major League Baseball team; the second-highest major league city, Phoenix, is just 1,085 feet above sea level. The effects that the altitude plays on baseball games in Colorado are pronounced, and some have argued that Denver's altitude makes it difficult for the Rockies to field a competitive team.
    Coors Field has long been regarded as the most hitter-friendly ballpark in the majors. Because of the altitude, fly balls hit there carry farther than they would at a sea-level ballpark, increasing the numbers of home runs. In addition, the dry air in Denver makes it difficult for pitchers to grip the ball properly, and pitches do not break as much as they would elsewhere. Also, in response to the high number of home runs that would be hit at any ballpark in Denver, the Rockies built a spacious outfield at the ballpark in an effort to decrease the number of home runs that would be hit at the park. Coors Field has the deepest outfield fences in the majors; this leads to increased numbers of singles, doubles, and triples. The large amount of ground that the outfielders must cover -- in addition to the thin air -- likely lead to outfielders tiring much more easily than they would at most ballparks.
    The effects that this has are obvious. In their fourteen years of existence, the Rockies have never finished lower than fifth in the National League in runs scored, and often lead the league in that category by a wide margin. The flipside is that the team has finished last in the league in ERA ten times, also often by a wide margin. The franchise leader in ERA, Aaron Cook, has a 4.58 career ERA.
    Due to the relative ease of hitting at Coors compared to other ballparks, Rockies hitters often have wide discrepancies in their performance on the road as opposed to at home. In his ten-year career, Todd Helton has a .371 batting average at home while hitting just .294 on the road. Larry Walker was at .381 and .283. 105 of Dante Bichette's 146 home runs for Colorado came at Coors Field. Other players often have even more pronounced splits: in 2006, second baseman Jamey Carroll hit .375 at home but .220 on the road. In his 1996 All-Star year, Eric Young hit .412 with 7 home runs, 55 RBIs, and 37 stolen bases at home, while batting .219-1-19 with 16 steals on the road. His performance was typical of the 1996 Rockies, who as a team hit .343 at home, but .228 on the road.
    Strangely, Rockies pitchers generally do not have similar splits despite the clear difficulties of pitching at Coors Field, and sometimes even perform worse on the road. In 2006, Aaron Cook had a 3.96 ERA at home while having a 4.62 ERA on the road; fellow starter Jeff Francis had a 4.30 ERA at home and a 4.05 ERA on the road.
    Not surprisingly, such discrepancies often lead to large discrepancies in the club's record in home and away games. In 2003, for example, the Rockies won 49 games at home but just 25 on the road, a difference of 24 games.

    The effects of altitude on baseball
    On June 1, 2006, USA Today[5] reported that Rockies management, including manager Clint Hurdle, had instituted an explicitly Christian code of conduct for the team's players, banning men's magazines (such as Maxim) and sexually explicit music from the team's clubhouse. The newspaper reported:
    Behind the scenes, [the Rockies] quietly have become an organization guided by Christianity — open to other religious beliefs but embracing a Christian-based code of conduct they believe will bring them focus and success.
    From ownership on down, it's an approach the Rockies are proud of — and something they are wary about publicizing. "We're nervous, to be honest with you," Rockies general manager Dan O'Dowd says. "It's the first time we ever talked about these issues publicly. The last thing we want to do is offend anyone because of our beliefs."
    The article sparked controversy, including criticism in a column in The Nation by Dave Zirin[6], which stated:
    San Francisco Giants first baseman-outfielder Mark Sweeney, who spent 2003 and 2004 with the Rockies, said, "You wonder if some people are going along with it just to keep their jobs. Look, I pray every day. I have faith. It's always been part of my life. But I don't want something forced on me. Do they really have to check to see whether I have a Playboy in my locker?"
    Soon after the USA Today article appeared, The Denver Post published an article featuring many Rockies players contesting the claims made in the USA Today article[7]. Jason Jennings, a Rockies' pitcher, said:
    "[The article in USA Today] was just bad. I am not happy at all. Some of the best teammates I have ever had are the furthest thing from Christian," pitcher Jason Jennings said. "You don't have to be a Christian to have good character. They can be separate. [The article] was misleading."
    While the initial USA Today article caused some controversy, the main claims have been repudiated by the ballclub and its players in the subsequent Denver Post story.

    2006 Controversy over Christian rules
    In 2002, a humidor was installed to store baseballs at the manufacturer's specification. Since the discovery of the humidor, it has cast suspicion in baseball of the Rockies talent, or lack thereof. Tampering with equipment, or more accurately, perceived tampering of equipment is an old phenomenon in baseball. That is in part why there is much discussion about the Denver humidor, and why Major League Baseball has not stepped in on the situation.
    Since the installation and discovery of the humidor in Coors Field, runs and high scoring games have since gone down in frequency. The Rockies do not deny this, however they point to the reason for balls flying out of Coors Field is not so much the altitude (5,280 feet above sea level), but the extremely dry air in Denver. They liken it to playing baseball with golf balls, as harder objects travel faster than softer objects when hit, like a baseball when kept at a humidity level recommended by the manufacturer. Columnists in Denver's newspapers also speculate that most players are stopping the use of steroids because of the increased testing and penalties, so fewer home runs are hit at Coors Field.
    To the contrary, skeptics will say that any tampering of the equipment would create an advantage for the home team, and if it did not, then the changes might never had been made. These accusations arrived again through the course of the 2006 season, as the Rockies had their best year since 2000 (however this doesn't account for the fact that all of the Rockies' four seasons over .500, including a playoff berth in 1995, came before the installation of the humidor, and their 2nd worst season in franchise history was 2004). There does not seem to be any real end to the controversy in sight.
    Some baseball followers have suggested that every major league baseball team should use a humidor. The Coors Field humidor is designed to keep the baseballs at the exact same size and weight as they are originally constructed for Major League Baseball. It is theorized that if every team had baseballs that were stored before the game in exactly the same conditions, it might serve as an equalizer for the teams, as well as eliminate the controversy of "tampering" with the baseballs.

    Humidor Controversy
    Not all Major League baseball teams have similar revenue streams, which contributes to a disparity of "haves" and "have-nots" amongst franchises. Major League Baseball franchises average spending 48.9% of every revenue dollar on player payroll while the Rockies spent 28.4% of team revenues on player payroll. (Not including benefits and bonuses where the Rockies pay disproportionately more than other teams.) [8] [9] Only one team in all of MLB spends a lower proportion of team revenues on player payroll than the Rockies.

    Other controversies
    Never used Rockies logo 1991-1992 [1]
    Colorado Rockies Rockies alternate logo 2001-present[2]
    Rockies alternate logo 2003-present[3]


    Season record
    Founded: 1991
    Began play: 1993 (National League expansion)
    Uniform colors: Black, Purple, Silver, and White
    Logo design: Purple mountain with baseball
    Team motto: R you in?
    Team mascot: Dinger
    Playoff appearances (1): 1995
    Owners: Charlie and Dick Monfort
    General Manager: Dan O'Dowd
    Victory Song: Get Free by The Vines
    Local Television: FSN Rocky Mountain, KTVD-20
    Spring Training Facility: Hi Corbett Field, Tucson, AZ

    Quick facts

    None Baseball Hall of Famers

    42 Jackie Robinson; number retired throughout Major League Baseball. Retired Numbers
    † 15-day disabled list Roster updated 2007-08-09 TransactionsDepth chart
    60-day disabled list
    Suspended list

    28 Flag of the United States Aaron Cook
    37 Flag of the United States Josh Fogg
    26 Flag of Canada Jeff Francis
    38 Flag of Dominican Republic Ubaldo Jiménez
    41 Flag of the United States Jeremy Affeldt
    35 Flag of the United States Taylor Buchholz
    60 Flag of Panama Manny Corpas (CL)
    32 Flag of the United States LaTroy Hawkins
    34 Flag of the United States Matt Herges
    50 Flag of Venezuela Jorge Julio
    27 Flag of the United States Ryan Speier
    16 Flag of Mexico Gerónimo Gil
     8 Flag of Venezuela Yorvit Torrealba
    21 Flag of the United States Clint Barmes
    27 Flag of the United States Garrett Atkins
     1 Flag of the United States Jamey Carroll
    17 Flag of the United States Todd Helton
     7 Flag of Japan Kazuo Matsui
     2 Flag of the United States Troy Tulowitzki
    10 Flag of Germany Jeff Baker
    11 Flag of the United States Brad Hawpe
     5 Flag of the United States Matt Holliday
    19 Flag of the United States Ryan Spilborghs
    18 Flag of the United States Cory Sullivan
     3 Flag of Dominican Republic Willy Taveras
    44 Flag of Dominican Republic Alberto Arias
    54 Flag of Dominican Republic Denny Bautista
    99 Flag of the United States Darren Clarke
    40 Flag of the United States Brian Fuentes
    48 Flag of the United States Jason Hirsh
    51 Flag of Dominican Republic Juan Morillo
    61 Flag of Dominican Republic Ramón Ramírez
    -- Flag of the United States Sean Thompson
    15 Flag of Venezuela Edwin Bellorín
    55 Flag of Venezuela Alvin Colina
    20 Flag of the United States Chris Iannetta
    62 Flag of Venezuela Jonathan Herrera
    29 Flag of the United States Jayson Nix
     6 Flag of the United States Omar Quintanilla
    14 Flag of the United States Sean Barker
    13 Flag of the United States Clint Hurdle
    00 Flag of the United States Brad Andress (strength)
    36 Flag of the United States Bob Apodaca (pitching)
    58 Flag of the United States Alan Cockrell (hitting)
     4 Flag of the United States Mike Gallego (third base)
    30 Flag of the United States Glenallen Hill (first base)
    53 Flag of the United States Rick Mathews (bullpen)
     9 Flag of the United States Jamie Quirk (bench)
    56 Flag of the United States Mark Strittmatter (bullpen catcher)
    31 Flag of Mexico Rodrigo López
    46 Flag of the United States Zach McClellan
    Currently vacant Current roster


    AAA: Colorado Springs Sky Sox, Pacific Coast League
    AA: Tulsa Drillers, Texas League
    Advanced A: Modesto Nuts, California League
    A: Asheville Tourists, South Atlantic League
    Short A: Tri-City Dust Devils, Northwest League
    Rookie: Casper Rockies, Pioneer League
    Rookie: VSL Rockies, Venezuelan Summer League Colorado Rockies Radio and television

    Rockies statistical records and milestone achievements
    List of Colorado Rockies broadcasters
    Managers and ownership of the Colorado Rockies
    2007 Colorado Rockies season