Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: 重庆; Traditional Chinese: 重慶; Pinyin: Chóngqìng; Postal map spelling: Chungking; Wade-Giles: Ch'ung-ch'ing) is the largest and most populous of the People's Republic of China's four provincial-level municipalities, and the only one in the less densely populated western half of China. Formerly (until 14 March 1997) a provincial city within Sichuan Province, the municipality of Chongqing has a registered population of 31,442,300 (2005), with most of them living outside the urban area of Chongqing proper, over hundreds of square kilometres of farmland. The population of the urban area of Chongqing proper was 4.1 million in 2005.
The municipal abbreviation, 渝 (Yú), was approved by the State Council on 18 April 1997. Chongqing was also a municipality of the old Republic of China. Its abbreviated name is derived from the old name of a part of the Jialing River that runs through Chongqing and feeds the Yangtze River.
The urban area of Chongqing proper (重庆市区) includes the following districts:
Yuzhong (渝中区, or "Central Chongqing District"), the central and most densely populated district, where government offices are located
Nan'an (南岸区, or "Southern Bank District")
Jiangbei (江北区, or "North of the River District")
Dadukou (大渡口区) History
Chongqing Municipality is divided into forty county-level subdivisions (three abolished in 1997), consisting of nineteen districts, seventeen counties, and four autonomous counties.
Indicates with which district the division was associated below prior to the merging of Chongqing, Fuling, Wanxian (now Wanzhou) and Qianjiang in 1997.
105°17'-110°11' East, 28°10'－32°13' North
0 C - 43 C (32 F - 109 F)
1000 to 1200
1000 to 1400 mm (39 in - 47 in)
Hubei (east), Hunan (east), Guizhou (south), Sichuan (west), Shaanxi (north)
Located on the edge of the Yungui Plateau, Chongqing is intersected by the Jialing River and the upper reaches of the Yangtze. It contains Daba Shan in the north, Wu Shan in the east, Wuling Shan in the southeast, and Dalou Mountain to the south.
The city is very hilly and is the only major metropolitan area in China without significant numbers of bicycles.
Historically, Chongqing has been a major trading inland port, transporting goods from the southwestern provinces to eastern China. During the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), Chongqing was transformed into a heavy industrial city, especially the military industry which continued to thrive for decades after 1949. Since the 1980s, many of these military industry enterprises have undergone reforms and turned from producing military goods to mostly civilian products for survival and growth. 
Chongqing is rich in natural resources, with more than forty kinds of minerals. Its coal reserves are estimated to be 4.8 billion tonnes. The Chuandong Natural Gas Field in Chongqing is China's largest inland production base of natural gas, with deposits of 270 billion m³, accounting for more than one-fifth of China's total. Chongqing also contains China's largest reserve of strontium, and China has the second largest reserve of the mineral in the world. Important industries in Chongqing include mining, iron, steel, aluminum, military, auto, motorcycle, chemical, textiles, machinery, electronics, building materials, food processing, retail, and tourism  . Chongqing is also home to Asia's largest aluminum plant, South West Aluminium, which rolled out 213,000 tonnes of finished products in 2004 for companies engaged in building materials, printing, electrical appliances, aerospace, packaging, and vehicle production . Manganese mining is the most important industry in the Xiushan area, but has been criticised for wasting resources, ruining the local environment and causing industrial accidents.A survey in 2005 by China's State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) found 13 firms in the manganese triangle had breached targets on the release of hexavalent chromium and ammonia-nitrogen – in the worst case, by a factor of 180. Clea-up costs ordered by SEPA resulted in firms closing and the expenditure of 280million yuan.
Chongqing's agricultural sector still employs a significant portion of the population. Other than rice, fruits especially oranges are important sources of income for the farmers. In the past twenty-five years, surplus labor resulted a huge number of farmers to migrate to the relatively more developed industrial centers of southern and eastern China for employment opportunities, thus making Chongqing one of the biggest labor export areas in China.
The central government has recently embarked on an economic policy that is aimed to develop western China: the China Western Development strategy. As part of this new plan, the central government has heavily invested in Chongqing's infrastructure and has made a plan for Chongqing to become the "Gateway to the West". Located at the head of the reservoir behind the Three Gorges Dam, Chongqing is planned to be the beachhead for the development of the western part of the country. With the completion of the Three Gorges project, its reservoir will bring ocean going ships to the quays of Chongqing. The hope is that this gritty fogbound megalopolis may become a Chinese Chicago, opening up the interior, shifting the country's centre of gravity west, and kick-starting the economy – as did Chicago in the United States of the nineteenth century. Massive public works are currently under way in the city, including overhead and surface commuter rail lines connecting the many districts of the city. Foreign investment in the city is growing at a fast pace. Chongqing is enlarging its commercial sector. New development zones such as the Chongqing New North Zone (CNNZ) located north of the downtown district have been established to form Chongqing's modern twenty-first century industrial base. 
In 2005, the nominal GDP of Chongqing municipality was 310 billion yuan (US$38.75 billion), a rise of 11.5% year-on-year. Its per capita GDP was 11,068 yuan (US$1,383). The primary, secondary, and tertiary industries of Chongqing were worth 46.342 billion yuan, 125.832 billion yuan, and 134.736 billion yuan, respectively. 
Chongqing is served by the Chongqing People's Broadcast Station, a television station.
Chongqing is the biggest inland river port in western China. Historically, most of its transportation, especially to eastern China, is via the Yangtze River.
Chongqing is also now linked to other parts of the country through several railways and highways, including:
Also, Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport, located north of Chongqing provides links to most parts of China and to other countries and regions such as Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, and Thailand.
Meanwhile, the transportation system in the metropolitan area is also being developed to modern standards. Due to its hilly geography and Yangtze and Jialing rivers which run through it, ground transportation in the city requires an unusual number of bridges and tunnels, which increases cost dramatically. As a result, public transportation in the city is vulnerable to lapses in safety, also owing to the fact that the public transportation system is semi-privatized with little regulation. However, the highway network around the city and to nearby satellite towns is almost completed. One unique form of transportation in the city are the cable cars which are suspended over the rivers. Recently, the Chongqing Metro was completed and entered service in January 2005.
Chongqing-Chengdu (Sichuan province) railway
Chongqing-Guiyang (Guizhou province) railway
Chongqing-Xiangfan (Hubei province) railway
Chongqing-Huaihua (Hunan province) railway
Chongqing-Suining (Sichuan province) express railway
Wanzhou-Yichang (Hubei province) railway (under construction)
Chongqing-Lanzhou (Gansu province) railway (under construction)
Chongqing-Guiyang highway Climate
Chongqing and surrounding areas are full of tourism resources. The most famous is the Three Gorges, a scenic area along Yangtze river. The 200-km long area is the most visited canyon in China. Besides its gorgeous natural scene, it is also a culturally rich area. Other tourism sites include Dazu Rock Carvings, mainly Buddhist themes, it was carved from the Tang Dynasty, now belongs to UNESCO World Heritage.
City sightseeing is also part of Chongqing tourism, with historic World War II sites located in the metropolitan area. Outside the city, Fishing Town marks where the Mongol prince Mongke Khan was defeated in 1243, stopping the Mongol expansion toward Europe and Africa.
According to a Reuters press release, in 2005 Chinese tourism authorities started a project to build a "women's town" in the Shuangqiao district of Chongqing municipality as a tourist attraction. The motto of Longshuihu village is "women never make mistakes, and men can never refuse women's requests." According to one official (surname Li), "Traditional women dominate and men have to be obedient in the areas of Sichuan province and Chongqing, and now we are using it as an idea to attract tourists and boost tourism." The tourism bureau is investing between 200 million yuan ($26 million) and 300 million yuan in infrastructure, roads and buildings for the 2.3-square-km village and is seeking outside investors as well. The project is expected to be completed in 2008-2010.
The previous total solar eclipse as seen from downtown Chongqing was the solar eclipse of 26 June 1824. The next will be the solar eclipse of 22 July 2009.
The city is home to one of the largest public assembly buildings in China, the Great Hall of the People, built in modern times but emulating traditional architectural styles. This is adjacent to the densely populated and hilly central district, with narrow streets and pedestrian only walkways.
There is a museum at the World War II headquarters of General "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell.
A giant ferris wheel offers spectacular views of the metropolitan area, although it is currently out of action.
A modern and well stocked zoo exhibits many national and regional animals, including the Giant Panda and the extremely rare South China Tiger.
The People's Liberation Monument is located in the center of ChongQing city, and it attracts a lot of tourists, and also it is surrounded by a few shopping centers.
Red Rock Village Museum is a place to attract a lot of people, it is the home of Communist Party Leaders Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai stayed there for negotiation with Kuomintang on coalition between two parties.
In July 2007, the city built a bathroom with 1,000 toilets spread out over 32,290 square feet. Some urinals are uniquely shaped, including ones inside open crocodile mouths and several that are topped by the bust of a woman resembling the Virgin Mary. Officials submitted an application to Guinness World Records to have the free four-story public bathroom listed as the world's largest. Landmarks
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The city's tree is the evergreen magnolia (magnolia delavayi) abundant in street plantings, with the tulip-like shape of its mature unopened blooms repeated in street lights.
Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.
Professional sports teams in Chongqing include:
Chinese Football Association Super League
- Chongqing Lifan
Chinese Basketball Association